msft-10k_20190630.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Transition Period From                  to                 

Commission File Number 001-37845

 

MICROSOFT CORPORATION

 

 

WASHINGTON

 

91-1144442

(STATE OF INCORPORATION)

 

(I.R.S. ID)

 

ONE MICROSOFT WAY, REDMOND, WASHINGTON 98052-6399

(425) 882-8080

www.microsoft.com/investor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol

 

Name of exchange on which registered

 

 

 

 

 

COMMON STOCK, $0.00000625 par value per share

 

MSFT

 

NASDAQ

2.125% Notes due 2021

 

MSFT

 

New York Stock Exchange

3.125% Notes due 2028

 

MSFT

 

New York Stock Exchange

2.625% Notes due 2033

 

MSFT

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

 

 

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NONE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer 

 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

 

Smaller reporting company 

 

 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

As of December 31, 2018, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $769.6 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the NASDAQ National Market System. As of July 29, 2019, there were 7,635,409,400 shares of common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to shareholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on December 4, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III.

 

 

 

 


 

MICROSOFT CORPORATION

FORM 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2019

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Executive Officers of the Registrant

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

97

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

99

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

104

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signatures

 

105

 

 

 

2


PART I

Item 1

 

Note About Forward-Looking Statements

This report includes estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives, and expected operating results that are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report, including the following sections: “Business” (Part I, Item 1 of this Form 10-K), “Risk Factors” (Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K), and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K). These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believe,” “project,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “strategy,” “future,” “opportunity,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially. We describe risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially in “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” (Part II, Item 7A of this Form 10-K). Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether because of new information, future events, or otherwise.

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

GENERAL

Embracing Our Future

Microsoft is a technology company whose mission is to empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more. We strive to create local opportunity, growth, and impact in every country around the world. Our platforms and tools help drive small business productivity, large business competitiveness, and public-sector efficiency. They also support new startups, improve educational and health outcomes, and empower human ingenuity.

We continue to transform our business to lead in the new era of the intelligent cloud and intelligent edge. We bring technology and products together into experiences and solutions that unlock value for our customers. In this next phase of innovation, computing is more powerful and ubiquitous from the cloud to the edge. Artificial intelligence (“AI”) capabilities are rapidly advancing, fueled by data and knowledge of the world. Physical and virtual worlds are coming together with the Internet of Things (“IoT”) and mixed reality to create richer experiences that understand the context surrounding people, the things they use, the places they go, and their activities and relationships. A person’s experience with technology spans a multitude of devices and has become increasingly more natural and multi-sensory with voice, ink, and gaze interactions.

What We Offer

Founded in 1975, we develop and support software, services, devices, and solutions that deliver new value for customers and help people and businesses realize their full potential.

We offer an array of services, including cloud-based solutions that provide customers with software, services, platforms, and content, and we provide solution support and consulting services. We also deliver relevant online advertising to a global audience.

Our products include operating systems; cross-device productivity applications; server applications; business solution applications; desktop and server management tools; software development tools; and video games. We also design, manufacture, and sell devices, including PCs, tablets, gaming and entertainment consoles, other intelligent devices, and related accessories.

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PART I

Item 1

 

The Ambitions That Drive Us

To achieve our vision, our research and development efforts focus on three interconnected ambitions:

 

Reinvent productivity and business processes.

 

Build the intelligent cloud and intelligent edge platform.

 

Create more personal computing.

Reinvent Productivity and Business Processes

We are in a unique position to empower people and organizations to succeed in a rapidly evolving workplace. Computing experiences are evolving, no longer bound to one device at a time. Instead, experiences are expanding to many devices as people move from home to work to on the go. These modern needs, habits, and expectations of our customers are motivating us to bring Microsoft Office 365, Windows platform, devices, including Microsoft Surface, and third-party applications into a more cohesive Microsoft 365 experience.

Our growth depends on securely delivering continuous innovation and advancing our leading productivity and collaboration tools and services, including Office, Microsoft Dynamics, and LinkedIn. Microsoft 365 brings together Office 365, Windows 10, and Enterprise Mobility + Security to help organizations empower their employees with AI-backed tools that unlock creativity, increase teamwork, and fuel innovation, all the while enabling compliance coverage and data protection. Microsoft Teams is core to our vision for the modern workplace as the digital hub that creates a single canvas for teamwork, conversations, meetings, and content. Microsoft Relationship Sales solution brings together LinkedIn Sales Navigator and Dynamics to transform business to business sales through social selling. Dynamics 365 for Talent with LinkedIn Recruiter and Learning gives human resource professionals a complete solution to compete for talent. Microsoft Power Platform empowers employees to build custom applications, automate workflow, and analyze data no matter their technical expertise.

These scenarios represent a move to unlock creativity and inspire teamwork, while simplifying security and management. Organizations of all sizes can now digitize business-critical functions, redefining what customers can expect from their business applications. This creates an opportunity for us to reach new customers and increase usage and engagement with existing customers.

Build the Intelligent Cloud and Intelligent Edge Platform

Companies are looking to use digital technology to fundamentally reimagine how they empower their employees, engage customers, optimize their operations, and change the very core of their products and services. Partnering with organizations on their digital transformation is one of our largest opportunities and we are uniquely positioned to become the strategic digital transformation platform and partner of choice.

Our strategy requires continued investment in datacenters and other hybrid and edge infrastructure to support our services. Microsoft Azure is a trusted cloud with comprehensive compliance coverage and AI-based security built in.

Our cloud business benefits from three economies of scale: datacenters that deploy computational resources at significantly lower cost per unit than smaller ones; datacenters that coordinate and aggregate diverse customer, geographic, and application demand patterns, improving the utilization of computing, storage, and network resources; and multi-tenancy locations that lower application maintenance labor costs.

As one of the two largest providers of cloud computing at scale, we believe we work from a position of strength. Being a global-scale cloud, Azure uniquely offers hybrid consistency, developer productivity, AI capabilities, and trusted security and compliance. We see more emerging use cases and needs for compute and security at the edge and are accelerating our innovation across the spectrum of intelligent edge devices, from IoT sensors to gateway devices and edge hardware to build, manage, and secure edge workloads. With Azure Stack, organizations can extend Azure into their own datacenters to create a consistent stack across the public cloud and the intelligent edge. Our hybrid infrastructure consistency spans identity, data, compute, management, and security, helping to support the real-world needs and evolving regulatory requirements of commercial customers and enterprises. We are accelerating our development of mixed reality solutions, with new Azure services and devices such as HoloLens 2. The opportunity to merge the physical and digital worlds, when combined with the power of Azure cloud services, unlocks the potential for entirely new workloads which we believe will shape the next era of computing.

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PART I

Item 1

 

The ability to convert data into AI drives our competitive advantage. Azure SQL Database makes it possible for customers to take Microsoft SQL Server from their on-premises datacenter to a fully managed instance in the cloud to utilize built-in AI. We are accelerating adoption of AI innovations from research to products. Our innovation helps every developer be an AI developer, with approachable new tools from Azure Machine Learning Studio for creating simple machine learning models, to the powerful Azure Machine Learning Workbench for the most advanced AI modeling and data science.

On October 25, 2018, we completed our acquisition of GitHub, Inc. (“GitHub”), a service that millions of developers around the world rely on to write code together. The acquisition is expected to empower developers to achieve more at every stage of the development lifecycle, accelerate enterprise use of GitHub, and bring Microsoft’s developer tools and services to new audiences.

Create More Personal Computing

We strive to make computing more personal by putting users at the core of the experience, enabling them to interact with technology in more intuitive, engaging, and dynamic ways. In support of this, we are bringing Office, Windows, and devices together for an enhanced and more cohesive customer experience.

Windows 10 continues to gain traction in the enterprise as the most secure and productive operating system. It empowers people with AI-first interfaces ranging from voice-activated commands through Cortana, inking, immersive 3D content storytelling, and mixed reality experiences. Windows also plays a critical role in fueling our cloud business and Microsoft 365 strategy, and it powers the growing range of devices on the “intelligent edge.” Our ambition for Windows 10 monetization opportunities includes gaming, services, subscriptions, and search advertising.

We are committed to designing and marketing first-party devices to help drive innovation, create new device categories, and stimulate demand in the Windows ecosystem. We recently expanded our Surface family of devices with the Surface Hub 2S, which brings together Microsoft Teams, Windows, and Surface hardware to power teamwork for organizations.

We are mobilizing to pursue our expansive opportunity in the gaming industry, broadening our approach to how we think about gaming end-to-end, from the way games are created and distributed to how they are played and viewed. We have a strong position with our Xbox One console, our large and growing highly engaged community of gamers on Xbox Live, and with Windows 10, the most popular operating system for PC gamers. We will continue to connect our gaming assets across PC, console, and mobile, and work to grow and engage the Xbox Live member network more deeply and frequently with services like Mixer and Xbox Game Pass. Our approach is to enable gamers to play the games they want, with the people they want, on the devices they want.

Our Future Opportunity

Customers are looking to us to accelerate their own digital transformations and to unlock new opportunity in this era of intelligent cloud and intelligent edge. We continue to develop complete, intelligent solutions for our customers that empower users to be creative and work together while safeguarding businesses and simplifying IT management. Our goal is to lead the industry in several distinct areas of technology over the long-term, which we expect will translate to sustained growth. We are investing significant resources in:

 

Transforming the workplace to deliver new modern, modular business applications to improve how people communicate, collaborate, learn, work, play, and interact with one another.

 

Building and running cloud-based services in ways that unleash new experiences and opportunities for businesses and individuals.

 

Applying AI to drive insights and act on our customer’s behalf by understanding and interpreting their needs using natural methods of communication.

 

Using Windows to fuel our cloud business and Microsoft 365 strategy, and to develop new categories of devices – both our own and third-party – on the intelligent edge.

 

Inventing new gaming experiences that bring people together around their shared love for games on any devices and pushing the boundaries of innovation with console and PC gaming by creating the next wave of entertainment.

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PART I

Item 1

 

Our future growth depends on our ability to transcend current product category definitions, business models, and sales motions. We have the opportunity to redefine what customers and partners can expect and are working to deliver new solutions that reflect the best of Microsoft.

OPERATING SEGMENTS

We operate our business and report our financial performance using three segments: Productivity and Business Processes, Intelligent Cloud, and More Personal Computing. Our segments provide management with a comprehensive financial view of our key businesses. The segments enable the alignment of strategies and objectives across the development, sales, marketing, and services organizations, and they provide a framework for timely and rational allocation of resources within businesses.

Additional information on our operating segments and geographic and product information is contained in Note 20 – Segment Information and Geographic Data of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K).

Our reportable segments are described below.

Productivity and Business Processes

Our Productivity and Business Processes segment consists of products and services in our portfolio of productivity, communication, and information services, spanning a variety of devices and platforms. This segment primarily comprises:

 

Office Commercial, including Office 365 subscriptions and Office licensed on-premises, comprising Office, Exchange, SharePoint, Microsoft Teams, Office 365 Security and Compliance, and Skype for Business, and related Client Access Licenses (“CALs”).

 

Office Consumer, including Office 365 subscriptions and Office licensed on-premises, and Office Consumer Services, including Skype, Outlook.com, and OneDrive.

 

LinkedIn, including Talent Solutions, Marketing Solutions, and Premium Subscriptions.

 

Dynamics business solutions, including Dynamics 365, a set of cloud-based applications across ERP and CRM, Dynamics ERP on-premises, and Dynamics CRM on-premises.

Office Commercial

Office Commercial is designed to increase personal, team, and organizational productivity through a range of products and services. Growth depends on our ability to reach new users in new markets such as first-line workers, small and medium businesses, and growth markets, as well as add value to our core product and service offerings to span productivity categories such as communication, collaboration, analytics, security, and compliance. Office Commercial revenue is mainly affected by a combination of continued installed base growth and average revenue per user expansion, as well as the continued shift from Office licensed on-premises to Office 365. CALs provide certain Office Commercial products and services with access rights to our server products and CAL revenue is reported with the associated Office products and services.

Office Consumer

Office Consumer is designed to increase personal productivity through a range of products and services. Growth depends on our ability to reach new users, add value to our core product set, and continue to expand our product and service offerings into new markets. Office Consumer revenue is mainly affected by the percentage of customers that buy Office with their new devices and the continued shift from Office licensed on-premises to Office 365. Office Consumer Services revenue is mainly affected by the demand for communication and storage through Skype, Outlook.com, and OneDrive, which is largely driven by subscriptions, advertising, and the sale of minutes.

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PART I

Item 1

 

LinkedIn

LinkedIn connects the world's professionals to make them more productive and successful, and is the world's largest professional network on the Internet. LinkedIn offers services that can be used by customers to transform the way they hire, market, sell, and learn. In addition to LinkedIn’s free services, LinkedIn offers three categories of monetized solutions: Talent Solutions, Marketing Solutions, and Premium Subscriptions, which includes Sales Solutions. Talent Solutions is comprised of two elements: Hiring, and Learning and Development. Hiring provides services to recruiters that enable them to attract, recruit, and hire talent. Learning and Development provides subscriptions to enterprises and individuals to access online learning content. Marketing Solutions enables companies to advertise to LinkedIn’s member base. Premium Subscriptions enables professionals to manage their professional identity, grow their network, and connect with talent through additional services like premium search. Premium Subscriptions also includes Sales Solutions, which helps sales professionals find, qualify, and create sales opportunities and accelerate social selling capabilities. Growth will depend on our ability to increase the number of LinkedIn members and our ability to continue offering services that provide value for our members and increase their engagement. LinkedIn revenue is mainly affected by demand from enterprises and professional organizations for subscriptions to Talent Solutions and Premium Subscriptions offerings, as well as member engagement and the quality of the sponsored content delivered to those members to drive Marketing Solutions.

On November 16, 2018, LinkedIn acquired Glint, an employee engagement platform, to expand its Talent Solutions offerings. 

Dynamics

Dynamics provides cloud-based and on-premises business solutions for financial management, enterprise resource planning (“ERP”), customer relationship management (“CRM”), supply chain management, and analytics applications for small and medium businesses, large organizations, and divisions of global enterprises. Dynamics revenue is driven by the number of users licensed, expansion of average revenue per user, and the continued shift to Dynamics 365, a unified set of cloud-based intelligent business applications.

Competition

Competitors to Office include software and global application vendors, such as Apple, Cisco Systems, Facebook, Google, IBM, Okta, Proofpoint, Slack, Symantec, Zoom, and numerous web-based and mobile application competitors as well as local application developers. Apple distributes versions of its pre-installed application software, such as email and calendar products, through its PCs, tablets, and phones. Cisco Systems is using its position in enterprise communications equipment to grow its unified communications business. Google provides a hosted messaging and productivity suite. Slack provides teamwork and collaboration software. Zoom offers videoconferencing and cloud phone solutions. Skype for Business and Skype also compete with a variety of instant messaging, voice, and video communication providers, ranging from start-ups to established enterprises. Okta, Proofpoint, and Symantec provide security solutions across email security, information protection, identity, and governance. Web-based offerings competing with individual applications have also positioned themselves as alternatives to our products and services. We compete by providing powerful, flexible, secure, integrated industry-specific, and easy-to-use productivity and collaboration tools and services that create comprehensive solutions and work well with technologies our customers already have both on-premises or in the cloud.

LinkedIn faces competition from online recruiting companies, talent management companies, and larger companies that are focusing on talent management and human resource services; job boards; traditional recruiting firms; and companies that provide learning and development products and services. Marketing Solutions competes with online and offline outlets that generate revenue from advertisers and marketers.

Dynamics competes with vendors such as Infor, NetSuite, Oracle, Salesforce.com, SAP, and The Sage Group to provide cloud-based and on-premise business solutions for small, medium, and large organizations.

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PART I

Item 1

 

Intelligent Cloud

Our Intelligent Cloud segment consists of our public, private, and hybrid server products and cloud services that can power modern business. This segment primarily comprises:

 

Server products and cloud services, including SQL Server, Windows Server, Visual Studio, System Center, and related CALs, GitHub, and Azure.

 

Enterprise Services, including Premier Support Services and Microsoft Consulting Services.

Server Products and Cloud Services

Our server products are designed to make IT professionals, developers, and their systems more productive and efficient. Server software is integrated server infrastructure and middleware designed to support software applications built on the Windows Server operating system. This includes the server platform, database, business intelligence, storage, management and operations, virtualization, service-oriented architecture platform, security, and identity software. We also license standalone and software development lifecycle tools for software architects, developers, testers, and project managers. GitHub provides a collaboration platform and code hosting service for developers. Server products revenue is mainly affected by purchases through volume licensing programs, licenses sold to original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”), and retail packaged products. CALs provide access rights to certain server products, including SQL Server and Windows Server, and revenue is reported along with the associated server product.

Azure is a comprehensive set of cloud services that offer developers, IT professionals, and enterprises freedom to build, deploy, and manage applications on any platform or device. Customers can use Azure through our global network of datacenters for computing, networking, storage, mobile and web application services, AI, IoT, cognitive services, and machine learning. Azure enables customers to devote more resources to development and use of applications that benefit their organizations, rather than managing on-premises hardware and software. Azure revenue is mainly affected by infrastructure-as-a-service and platform-as-a-service consumption-based services, and per user-based services such as Enterprise Mobility + Security.

Enterprise Services

Enterprise Services, including Premier Support Services and Microsoft Consulting Services, assist customers in developing, deploying, and managing Microsoft server and desktop solutions and provide training and certification to developers and IT professionals on various Microsoft products.

Competition

Our server products face competition from a wide variety of server operating systems and applications offered by companies with a range of market approaches. Vertically integrated computer manufacturers such as Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Oracle offer their own versions of the Unix operating system preinstalled on server hardware. Nearly all computer manufacturers offer server hardware for the Linux operating system and many contribute to Linux operating system development. The competitive position of Linux has also benefited from the large number of compatible applications now produced by many commercial and non-commercial software developers. A number of companies, such as Red Hat, supply versions of Linux.

We compete to provide enterprise-wide computing solutions and point solutions with numerous commercial software vendors that offer solutions and middleware technology platforms, software applications for connectivity (both Internet and intranet), security, hosting, database, and e-business servers. IBM and Oracle lead a group of companies focused on the Java Platform Enterprise Edition that competes with our enterprise-wide computing solutions. Commercial competitors for our server applications for PC-based distributed client-server environments include CA Technologies, IBM, and Oracle. Our web application platform software competes with open source software such as Apache, Linux, MySQL, and PHP. In middleware, we compete against Java vendors.

Our database, business intelligence, and data warehousing solutions offerings compete with products from IBM, Oracle, SAP, and other companies. Our system management solutions compete with server management and server virtualization platform providers, such as BMC, CA Technologies, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and VMware. Our products for software developers compete against offerings from Adobe, IBM, Oracle, and other companies, and also against open-source projects, including Eclipse (sponsored by CA Technologies, IBM, Oracle, and SAP), PHP, and Ruby on Rails.

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PART I

Item 1

 

We believe our server products provide customers with advantages in performance, total costs of ownership, and productivity by delivering superior applications, development tools, compatibility with a broad base of hardware and software applications, security, and manageability.

Azure faces diverse competition from companies such as Amazon, Google, IBM, Oracle, Salesforce.com, VMware, and open source offerings. Our Enterprise Mobility + Security offerings also compete with products from a range of competitors including identity vendors, security solution vendors, and numerous other security point solution vendors. Azure’s competitive advantage includes enabling a hybrid cloud, allowing deployment of existing datacenters with our public cloud into a single, cohesive infrastructure, and the ability to run at a scale that meets the needs of businesses of all sizes and complexities. We believe our cloud’s global scale, coupled with our broad portfolio of identity and security solutions, allows us to effectively solve complex cybersecurity challenges for our customers and differentiates us from the competition.

Our Enterprise Services business competes with a wide range of companies that provide strategy and business planning, application development, and infrastructure services, including multinational consulting firms and small niche businesses focused on specific technologies.

More Personal Computing

Our More Personal Computing segment consists of products and services geared towards harmonizing the interests of end users, developers, and IT professionals across all devices. This segment primarily comprises:

 

Windows, including Windows OEM licensing (“Windows OEM”) and other non-volume licensing of the Windows operating system; Windows Commercial, comprising volume licensing of the Windows operating system, Windows cloud services, and other Windows commercial offerings; patent licensing; Windows IoT; and MSN advertising.

 

Devices, including Surface, PC accessories, and other intelligent devices.

 

Gaming, including Xbox hardware and Xbox software and services, comprising Xbox Live transactions, subscriptions, cloud services, and advertising (“Xbox Live”), video games, and third-party video game royalties.

 

Search.

Windows

The Windows operating system is designed to deliver a more personal computing experience for users by enabling consistency of experience, applications, and information across their devices. Windows OEM revenue is impacted significantly by the number of Windows operating system licenses purchased by OEMs, which they pre-install on the devices they sell. In addition to computing device market volume, Windows OEM revenue is impacted by:

 

The mix of computing devices based on form factor and screen size.

 

Differences in device market demand between developed markets and growth markets.

 

Attachment of Windows to devices shipped.

 

Customer mix between consumer, small and medium businesses, and large enterprises.

 

Changes in inventory levels in the OEM channel.

 

Pricing changes and promotions, pricing variation that occurs when the mix of devices manufactured shifts from local and regional system builders to large multinational OEMs, and different pricing of Windows versions licensed.

 

Constraints in the supply chain of device components.

 

Piracy.

Windows Commercial revenue, which includes volume licensing of the Windows operating system and Windows cloud services such as Microsoft Defender Advanced Threat Protection, is affected mainly by the demand from commercial customers for volume licensing and Software Assurance (“SA”), as well as advanced security offerings. Windows Commercial revenue often reflects the number of information workers in a licensed enterprise and is relatively independent of the number of PCs sold in a given year.

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PART I

Item 1

 

Patent licensing includes our programs to license patents we own for use across a broad array of technology areas, including mobile devices and cloud offerings.

Windows IoT extends the power of Windows and the cloud to intelligent systems by delivering specialized operating systems, tools, and services for use in embedded devices.

MSN advertising includes both native and display ads.

Devices

We design, manufacture, and sell devices, including Surface, PC accessories, and other intelligent devices. Our devices are designed to enable people and organizations to connect to the people and content that matter most using Windows and integrated Microsoft products and services. Surface is designed to help organizations, students, and consumers be more productive.

Gaming

Our gaming platform is designed to provide a unique variety of entertainment using our devices, peripherals, applications, online services, and content. We released Xbox One S and Xbox One X in August 2016 and November 2017, respectively. With the launch of the Mixer service in May 2017, offering interactive live streaming, and Xbox Game Pass in June 2017, providing unlimited access to over 100 Xbox titles, we continue to open new opportunities for customers to engage both on- and off-console. With our acquisition of PlayFab in January 2018, we enable worldwide game developers to utilize game services, LiveOps, and analytics for player acquisition, engagement, and retention. We have also made these services available for developers outside of the gaming industry.

Xbox Live enables people to connect and share online gaming experiences and is accessible on Xbox consoles, Windows-enabled devices, and other devices. Xbox Live is designed to benefit users by providing access to a network of certified applications and services and to benefit our developer and partner ecosystems by providing access to a large customer base. Xbox Live revenue is mainly affected by subscriptions and sales of Xbox Live enabled content, as well as advertising. We also continue to design and sell gaming content to showcase our unique platform capabilities for Xbox consoles, Windows-enabled devices, and other devices. Growth of our Gaming business is determined by the overall active user base through Xbox Live enabled content, availability of games, providing exclusive game content that gamers seek, the computational power and reliability of the devices used to access our content and services, and the ability to create new experiences via online services including game streaming, downloadable content, and peripherals.

Search

Our Search business, including Bing and Microsoft Advertising, is designed to deliver relevant online advertising to a global audience. We have several partnerships with other companies, including Verizon Media Group, through which we provide and monetize search queries. Growth depends on our ability to attract new users, understand intent, and match intent with relevant content and advertiser offerings.

Competition

Windows faces competition from various software products and from alternative platforms and devices, mainly from Apple and Google. We believe Windows competes effectively by giving customers choice, value, flexibility, security, an easy-to-use interface, and compatibility with a broad range of hardware and software applications, including those that enable productivity.

Devices face competition from various computer, tablet, and hardware manufacturers who offer a unique combination of high-quality industrial design and innovative technologies across various price points. These manufacturers, many of which are also current or potential partners and customers, include Apple and our Windows OEMs.

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Our gaming platform competes with console platforms from Nintendo and Sony, both of which have a large, established base of customers. The lifecycle for gaming and entertainment consoles averages five to ten years. Nintendo released its latest generation console in March 2017 and Sony released its latest generation console in November 2013. We also compete with other providers of entertainment services through online marketplaces. We believe our gaming platform is effectively positioned against competitive products and services based on significant innovation in hardware architecture, user interface, developer tools, online gaming and entertainment services, and continued strong exclusive content from our own game franchises as well as other digital content offerings. Our video games competitors include Electronic Arts and Activision Blizzard. Xbox Live and our cloud gaming services face competition from various online marketplaces, including those operated by Amazon, Apple, and Google.

Our search business competes with Google and a wide array of websites, social platforms like Facebook, and portals that provide content and online offerings to end users.

OPERATIONS

We have operations centers that support operations in their regions, including customer contract and order processing, credit and collections, information processing, and vendor management and logistics. The regional center in Ireland supports the European, Middle Eastern, and African region; the center in Singapore supports the Japan, India, Greater China, and Asia-Pacific region; and the centers in Fargo, North Dakota, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Puerto Rico, Redmond, Washington, and Reno, Nevada support Latin America and North America. In addition to the operations centers, we also operate datacenters throughout the Americas, Europe, Australia, and Asia, as well as in the Middle East and Africa.

To serve the needs of customers around the world and to improve the quality and usability of products in international markets, we localize many of our products to reflect local languages and conventions. Localizing a product may require modifying the user interface, altering dialog boxes, and translating text.

Our devices are primarily manufactured by third-party contract manufacturers. We generally have the ability to use other manufacturers if a current vendor becomes unavailable or unable to meet our requirements.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Product and Service Development, and Intellectual Property

We develop most of our products and services internally through the following engineering groups.

 

Cloud and AI, focuses on making IT professionals, developers, and their systems more productive and efficient through development of cloud infrastructure, server, database, CRM, ERP, management and development tools, AI cognitive services, and other business process applications and services for enterprises.

 

Experiences and Devices, focuses on instilling a unifying product ethos across our end-user experiences and devices, including Office, Windows, Enterprise Mobility and Management, and Surface.

 

AI and Research, focuses on our AI innovations and other forward-looking research and development efforts spanning infrastructure, services, applications, and search.

 

LinkedIn, focuses on our services that transform the way customers hire, market, sell, and learn.

 

Gaming, focuses on connecting gaming assets across the range of devices to grow and engage the Xbox Live member network through game experiences, streaming content, and social interaction.

Internal development allows us to maintain competitive advantages that come from product differentiation and closer technical control over our products and services. It also gives us the freedom to decide which modifications and enhancements are most important and when they should be implemented. We strive to obtain information as early as possible about changing usage patterns and hardware advances that may affect software and hardware design. Before releasing new software platforms, and as we make significant modifications to existing platforms, we provide application vendors with a range of resources and guidelines for development, training, and testing. Generally, we also create product documentation internally.

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We protect our intellectual property investments in a variety of ways. We work actively in the U.S. and internationally to ensure the enforcement of copyright, trademark, trade secret, and other protections that apply to our software and hardware products, services, business plans, and branding. We are a leader among technology companies in pursuing patents and currently have a portfolio of over 61,000 U.S. and international patents issued and over 26,000 pending. While we employ much of our internally-developed intellectual property exclusively in our products and services, we also engage in outbound licensing of specific patented technologies that are incorporated into licensees’ products. From time to time, we enter into broader cross-license agreements with other technology companies covering entire groups of patents. We also purchase or license technology that we incorporate into our products and services. At times, we make select intellectual property broadly available at no or low cost to achieve a strategic objective, such as promoting industry standards, advancing interoperability, or attracting and enabling our external development community. Our increasing engagement with open source software will also cause us to license our intellectual property rights broadly in certain situations.

While it may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of our products, services, and business methods, we believe, based upon past experience and industry practice, such licenses generally can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. We believe our continuing research and product development are not materially dependent on any single license or other agreement with a third party relating to the development of our products.

Investing in the Future

Our success is based on our ability to create new and compelling products, services, and experiences for our users, to initiate and embrace disruptive technology trends, to enter new geographic and product markets, and to drive broad adoption of our products and services. We invest in a range of emerging technology trends and breakthroughs that we believe offer significant opportunities to deliver value to our customers and growth for the Company. Based on our assessment of key technology trends, we maintain our long-term commitment to research and development across a wide spectrum of technologies, tools, and platforms spanning digital work and life experiences, cloud computing, AI, devices, and operating systems.

While our main research and development facilities are located in Redmond, Washington, we also operate research and development facilities in other parts of the U.S. and around the world, including Canada, China, Czech Republic, India, Ireland, Israel, and the United Kingdom. This global approach helps us remain competitive in local markets and enables us to continue to attract top talent from across the world. We generally fund research at the corporate level to ensure that we are looking beyond immediate product considerations to opportunities further in the future. We also fund research and development activities at the operating segment level. Much of our segment level research and development is coordinated with other segments and leveraged across the Company.

In addition to our main research and development operations, we also operate Microsoft Research. Microsoft Research is one of the world’s largest corporate research organizations and works in close collaboration with top universities around the world to advance the state-of-the-art in computer science and a broad range of other disciplines, providing us a unique perspective on future trends and contributing to our innovation.

We plan to continue to make significant investments in a broad range of research and development efforts.

DISTRIBUTION, SALES, AND MARKETING

We market and distribute our products and services through the following channels: OEMs, direct, and distributors and resellers. Our sales force performs a variety of functions, including working directly with enterprises and public-sector organizations worldwide to identify and meet their technology requirements; managing OEM relationships; and supporting system integrators, independent software vendors, and other partners who engage directly with our customers to perform sales, consulting, and fulfillment functions for our products and services.

OEMs

We distribute our products and services through OEMs that pre-install our software on new devices and servers they sell. The largest component of the OEM business is the Windows operating system pre-installed on devices. OEMs also sell devices pre-installed with other Microsoft products and services, including applications such as Office and the capability to subscribe to Office 365.

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There are two broad categories of OEMs. The largest category of OEMs are direct OEMs as our relationship with them is managed through a direct agreement between Microsoft and the OEM. We have distribution agreements covering one or more of our products with virtually all the multinational OEMs, including Acer, ASUS, Dell, Fujitsu, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo, Samsung, Sharp, Toshiba, and with many regional and local OEMs. The second broad category of OEMs are system builders consisting of lower-volume PC manufacturers, which source Microsoft software for pre-installation and local redistribution primarily through the Microsoft distributor channel rather than through a direct agreement or relationship with Microsoft.

Direct

Many organizations that license our products and services transact directly with us through Enterprise Agreements and Enterprise Services contracts, with sales support from system integrators, independent software vendors, web agencies, and partners that advise organizations on licensing our products and services (“Enterprise Agreement Software Advisors” or “ESA”). Microsoft offers direct sales programs targeted to reach small, medium, and corporate customers, in addition to those offered through the reseller channel. A large network of partner advisors support many of these sales.  

We also sell commercial and consumer products and services directly to customers, such as cloud services, search, and gaming, through our digital marketplaces, online stores, and retail stores.

Distributors and Resellers

Organizations also license our products and services indirectly, primarily through licensing solution partners (“LSP”), distributors, value-added resellers (“VAR”), and retailers. Although each type of reselling partner may reach organizations of all sizes, LSPs are primarily engaged with large organizations, distributors resell primarily to VARs, and VARs typically reach small and medium organizations. ESAs are also typically authorized as LSPs and operate as resellers for our other volume licensing programs. Microsoft Cloud Solution Provider is our main partner program for reselling cloud services.

We distribute our retail packaged products primarily through independent non-exclusive distributors, authorized replicators, resellers, and retail outlets. Individual consumers obtain these products primarily through retail outlets. We distribute our devices through third-party retailers. We have a network of field sales representatives and field support personnel that solicit orders from distributors and resellers, and provide product training and sales support.

Our Dynamics business solutions are also licensed to enterprises through a global network of channel partners providing vertical solutions and specialized services.

LICENSING OPTIONS

We offer options for organizations that want to purchase our cloud services, on-premises software, and Software Assurance. We license software to organizations under volume licensing agreements to allow the customer to acquire multiple licenses of products and services instead of having to acquire separate licenses through retail channels. We use different programs designed to provide flexibility for organizations of various sizes. While these programs may differ in various parts of the world, generally they include those discussed below.

SA conveys rights to new software and upgrades for perpetual licenses released over the contract period. It also provides support, tools, and training to help customers deploy and use software efficiently. SA is included with certain volume licensing agreements and is an optional purchase with others.

Volume Licensing Programs

Enterprise Agreement

Enterprise Agreements offer large organizations a manageable volume licensing program that gives them the flexibility to buy cloud services and software licenses under one agreement. Enterprise Agreements are designed for medium or large organizations that want to license cloud services and on-premises software organization-wide over a three-year period. Organizations can elect to purchase perpetual licenses or subscribe to licenses. SA is included.

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Microsoft Product and Services Agreement

Microsoft Product and Services Agreements are designed for medium and large organizations that want to license cloud services and on-premises software as needed, with no organization-wide commitment, under a single, non-expiring agreement. Organizations purchase perpetual licenses or subscribe to licenses. SA is optional for customers that purchase perpetual licenses.

Open

Open agreements are a simple, cost-effective way to acquire the latest Microsoft technology. Open agreements are designed for small and medium organizations that want to license cloud services and on-premises software over a one- to three-year period. Under the Open agreements, organizations purchase perpetual licenses and SA is optional. Under Open Value agreements, organizations can elect to purchase perpetual licenses or subscribe to licenses and SA is included.

Select Plus

Select Plus agreements are designed for government and academic organizations to acquire on-premises licenses at any affiliate or department level, while realizing advantages as one organization. Organizations purchase perpetual licenses and SA is optional.  

Microsoft Online Subscription Agreement

Microsoft Online Subscription Agreements are designed for small and medium organizations that want to subscribe to, activate, provision, and maintain cloud services seamlessly and directly via the web. The agreement allows customers to acquire monthly or annual subscriptions for cloud-based services.

Partner Programs

The Microsoft Cloud Solution Provider program offers customers an easy way to license the cloud services they need in combination with the value-added services offered by their systems integrator, hosting partner, or cloud reseller partner. Partners in this program can easily package their own products and services to directly provision, manage, and support their customer subscriptions.

The Microsoft Services Provider License Agreement allows service providers and independent software vendors who want to license eligible Microsoft software products to provide software services and hosted applications to their end customers. Partners license software over a three-year period and are billed monthly based on consumption.

The Independent Software Vendor Royalty program enables partners to integrate Microsoft products into other applications and then license the unified business solution to their end users.

CUSTOMERS

Our customers include individual consumers, small and medium organizations, large global enterprises, public-sector institutions, Internet service providers, application developers, and OEMs. Our practice is to ship our products promptly upon receipt of purchase orders from customers; consequently, backlog is not significant.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT

Our executive officers as of July 31, 2019 were as follows:

 

Name

 

Age

 

 

Position with the Company

 

 

 

 

Satya Nadella

 

 

51

 

 

Chief Executive Officer

Christopher C. Capossela

 

 

49

 

 

Executive Vice President, Marketing and Consumer Business, and Chief Marketing Officer

Jean-Philippe Courtois

 

 

58

 

 

Executive Vice President and President, Microsoft Global Sales, Marketing and Operations

Kathleen T. Hogan

 

 

53

 

 

Executive Vice President, Human Resources

Amy E. Hood

 

 

47

 

 

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer

Margaret L. Johnson

 

 

57

 

 

Executive Vice President, Business Development

Bradford L. Smith

 

 

60

 

 

President and Chief Legal Officer

 

Mr. Nadella was appointed Chief Executive Officer in February 2014. He served as Executive Vice President, Cloud and Enterprise from July 2013 until that time. From 2011 to 2013, Mr. Nadella served as President, Server and Tools. From 2009 to 2011, he was Senior Vice President, Online Services Division. From 2008 to 2009, he was Senior Vice President, Search, Portal, and Advertising. Since joining Microsoft in 1992, Mr. Nadella’s roles also included Vice President of the Business Division. Mr. Nadella also serves on the Board of Directors of Starbucks Corporation.

Mr. Capossela was appointed Executive Vice President, Marketing and Consumer Business, and Chief Marketing Officer in July 2016. He had served as Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing Officer since March 2014. Previously, he served as the worldwide leader of the Consumer Channels Group, responsible for sales and marketing activities with OEMs, operators, and retail partners. In his more than 25 years at Microsoft, Mr. Capossela has held a variety of marketing leadership roles in the Microsoft Office Division. He was responsible for marketing productivity solutions including Microsoft Office, Office 365, SharePoint, Exchange, Skype for Business, Project, and Visio.

Mr. Courtois was appointed Executive Vice President and President, Microsoft Global Sales, Marketing and Operations in July 2016. Before that he was President of Microsoft International since 2005. He was Chief Executive Officer, Microsoft Europe, Middle East, and Africa from 2003 to 2005. He was Senior Vice President and President, Microsoft Europe, Middle East, and Africa from 2000 to 2003. He was Corporate Vice President, Worldwide Customer Marketing from 1998 to 2000. Mr. Courtois joined Microsoft in 1984.

Ms. Hogan was appointed Executive Vice President, Human Resources in November 2014. Prior to that Ms. Hogan was Corporate Vice President of Microsoft Services. She also served as Corporate Vice President of Customer Service and Support. Ms. Hogan joined Microsoft in 2003.

Ms. Hood was appointed Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in July 2013, subsequent to her appointment as Chief Financial Officer in May 2013. From 2010 to 2013, Ms. Hood was Chief Financial Officer of the Microsoft Business Division. From 2006 through 2009, Ms. Hood was General Manager, Microsoft Business Division Strategy. Since joining Microsoft in 2002, Ms. Hood has also held finance-related positions in the Server and Tools Business and the corporate finance organization. Ms. Hood also serves on the Board of Directors of 3M Corporation.

Ms. Johnson was appointed Executive Vice President, Business Development in September 2014. Prior to that Ms. Johnson spent 24 years at Qualcomm in various leadership positions across engineering, sales, marketing and business development. She most recently served as Executive Vice President of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. Ms. Johnson also serves on the Board of Directors of BlackRock, Inc.

Mr. Smith was appointed President and Chief Legal Officer in September 2015. He served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary from 2011 to 2015, and served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary from 2001 to 2011. Mr. Smith was also named Chief Compliance Officer in 2002. Since joining Microsoft in 1993, he was Deputy General Counsel for Worldwide Sales and previously was responsible for managing the European Law and Corporate Affairs Group, based in Paris. Mr. Smith also serves on the Board of Directors of Netflix, Inc.

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EMPLOYEES

As of June 30, 2019, we employed approximately 144,000 people on a full-time basis, 85,000 in the U.S. and 59,000 internationally. Of the total employed people, 47,000 were in operations, including manufacturing, distribution, product support, and consulting services; 47,000 were in product research and development; 38,000 were in sales and marketing; and 12,000 were in general and administration. Certain of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our Internet address is www.microsoft.com. At our Investor Relations website, www.microsoft.com/investor, we make available free of charge a variety of information for investors. Our goal is to maintain the Investor Relations website as a portal through which investors can easily find or navigate to pertinent information about us, including:

 

Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file that material with or furnish it to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) at www.sec.gov.

 

Information on our business strategies, financial results, and metrics for investors.

 

Announcements of investor conferences, speeches, and events at which our executives talk about our product, service, and competitive strategies. Archives of these events are also available.

 

Press releases on quarterly earnings, product and service announcements, legal developments, and international news.

 

Corporate governance information including our articles of incorporation, bylaws, governance guidelines, committee charters, codes of conduct and ethics, global corporate social responsibility initiatives, and other governance-related policies.

 

Other news and announcements that we may post from time to time that investors might find useful or interesting.

 

Opportunities to sign up for email alerts to have information pushed in real time.

The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC. In addition to these channels, we use social media to communicate to the public. It is possible that the information we post on social media could be deemed to be material to investors. We encourage investors, the media, and others interested in Microsoft to review the information we post on the social media channels listed on our Investor Relations website.

 

 

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below, that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and the trading price of our common stock.

We face intense competition across all markets for our products and services, which may lead to lower revenue or operating margins.

Competition in the technology sector

Our competitors range in size from diversified global companies with significant research and development resources to small, specialized firms whose narrower product lines may let them be more effective in deploying technical, marketing, and financial resources. Barriers to entry in many of our businesses are low and many of the areas in which we compete evolve rapidly with changing and disruptive technologies, shifting user needs, and frequent introductions of new products and services. Our ability to remain competitive depends on our success in making innovative products, devices, and services that appeal to businesses and consumers.

Competition among platform-based ecosystems

An important element of our business model has been to create platform-based ecosystems on which many participants can build diverse solutions. A well-established ecosystem creates beneficial network effects among users, application developers, and the platform provider that can accelerate growth. Establishing significant scale in the marketplace is necessary to achieve and maintain attractive margins. We face significant competition from firms that provide competing platforms.

 

A competing vertically-integrated model, in which a single firm controls the software and hardware elements of a product and related services, has succeeded with some consumer products such as personal computers, tablets, phones, gaming consoles, wearables, and other endpoint devices. Competitors pursuing this model also earn revenue from services integrated with the hardware and software platform, including applications and content sold through their integrated marketplaces. They may also be able to claim security and performance benefits from their vertically integrated offer. We also offer some vertically-integrated hardware and software products and services. To the extent we shift a portion of our business to a vertically integrated model we increase our cost of revenue and reduce our operating margins.

 

We derive substantial revenue from licenses of Windows operating systems on personal computers. We face significant competition from competing platforms developed for new devices and form factors such as smartphones and tablet computers. These devices compete on multiple bases including price and the perceived utility of the device and its platform. Users are increasingly turning to these devices to perform functions that in the past were performed by personal computers. Even if many users view these devices as complementary to a personal computer, the prevalence of these devices may make it more difficult to attract application developers to our PC operating system platforms. Competing with operating systems licensed at low or no cost may decrease our PC operating system margins. Popular products or services offered on competing platforms could increase their competitive strength. In addition, some of our devices compete with products made by our original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) partners, which may affect their commitment to our platform.

 

Competing platforms have content and application marketplaces with scale and significant installed bases. The variety and utility of content and applications available on a platform are important to device purchasing decisions. Users may incur costs to move data and buy new content and applications when switching platforms. To compete, we must successfully enlist developers to write applications for our platform and ensure that these applications have high quality, security, customer appeal, and value. Efforts to compete with competitors’ content and application marketplaces may increase our cost of revenue and lower our operating margins.

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Business model competition

Companies compete with us based on a growing variety of business models.

 

Even as we transition more of our business to infrastructure-, platform-, and software-as-a-service business model, the license-based proprietary software model generates a substantial portion of our software revenue. We bear the costs of converting original ideas into software products through investments in research and development, offsetting these costs with the revenue received from licensing our products. Many of our competitors also develop and sell software to businesses and consumers under this model.

 

Other competitors develop and offer free applications, online services and content, and make money by selling third-party advertising. Advertising revenue funds development of products and services these competitors provide to users at no or little cost, competing directly with our revenue-generating products.

 

Some companies compete with us by modifying and then distributing open source software at little or no cost to end-users, and earning revenue on advertising or integrated products and services. These firms do not bear the full costs of research and development for the open source software. Some open source software mimics the features and functionality of our products.

The competitive pressures described above may cause decreased sales volumes, price reductions, and/or increased operating costs, such as for research and development, marketing, and sales incentives. This may lead to lower revenue, gross margins, and operating income.

Our increasing focus on cloud-based services presents execution and competitive risks. A growing part of our business involves cloud-based services available across the spectrum of computing devices. Our strategic vision is to compete and grow by building best-in-class platforms and productivity services for an intelligent cloud and an intelligent edge infused with artificial intelligence (“AI”). At the same time, our competitors are rapidly developing and deploying cloud-based services for consumers and business customers. Pricing and delivery models are evolving. Devices and form factors influence how users access services in the cloud and sometimes the user’s choice of which cloud-based services to use. We are devoting significant resources to develop and deploy our cloud-based strategies. The Windows ecosystem must continue to evolve with this changing environment. We are undertaking cultural and organizational changes to drive accountability and eliminate obstacles to innovation. Our intelligent cloud and intelligent edge worldview is connected with the growth of the Internet of Things (“IoT”). Our success in the IoT will depend on the level of adoption of our offerings such as Microsoft Azure, Azure Stack, Azure IoT Edge, and Azure Sphere. We may not establish market share sufficient to achieve scale necessary to achieve our business objectives.

Besides software development costs, we are incurring costs to build and maintain infrastructure to support cloud computing services. These costs will reduce the operating margins we have previously achieved. Whether we succeed in cloud-based services depends on our execution in several areas, including:

 

Continuing to bring to market compelling cloud-based experiences that generate increasing traffic and market share.

 

Maintaining the utility, compatibility, and performance of our cloud-based services on the growing array of computing devices, including PCs, smartphones, tablets, gaming consoles, and other devices, as well as sensors and other endpoints.

 

Continuing to enhance the attractiveness of our cloud platforms to third-party developers.

 

Ensuring our cloud-based services meet the reliability expectations of our customers and maintain the security of their data.

 

Making our suite of cloud-based services platform-agnostic, available on a wide range of devices and ecosystems, including those of our competitors.

It is uncertain whether our strategies will attract the users or generate the revenue required to succeed. If we are not effective in executing organizational and technical changes to increase efficiency and accelerate innovation, or if we fail to generate sufficient usage of our new products and services, we may not grow revenue in line with the infrastructure and development investments described above. This may negatively impact gross margins and operating income.

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We make significant investments in products and services that may not achieve expected returns. We will continue to make significant investments in research, development, and marketing for existing products, services, and technologies, including the Windows operating system, Microsoft 365, Office, Bing, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server, Azure, Office 365, Xbox Live, Mixer, LinkedIn, and other products and services. We also invest in the development and acquisition of a variety of hardware for productivity, communication, and entertainment including PCs, tablets, gaming devices, and HoloLens. Investments in new technology are speculative. Commercial success depends on many factors, including innovativeness, developer support, and effective distribution and marketing. If customers do not perceive our latest offerings as providing significant new functionality or other value, they may reduce their purchases of new software and hardware products or upgrades, unfavorably affecting revenue. We may not achieve significant revenue from new product, service, and distribution channel investments for several years, if at all. New products and services may not be profitable, and even if they are profitable, operating margins for some new products and businesses will not be as high as the margins we have experienced historically. We may not get engagement in certain features, like Microsoft Edge and Bing, that drive post-sale monetization opportunities. Our data handling practices across our products and services will continue to be under scrutiny and perceptions of mismanagement, driven by regulatory activity or negative public reaction to our practices or product experiences, which could negatively impact product and feature adoption, product design, and product quality.

Developing new technologies is complex. It can require long development and testing periods. Significant delays in new releases or significant problems in creating new products or services could adversely affect our revenue.

Acquisitions, joint ventures, and strategic alliances may have an adverse effect on our business. We expect to continue making acquisitions and entering into joint ventures and strategic alliances as part of our long-term business strategy. In December 2016, we completed our acquisition of LinkedIn Corporation (“LinkedIn”) for $27.0 billion, and in October 2018, we completed our acquisition of GitHub, Inc. for $7.5 billion. These acquisitions and other transactions and arrangements involve significant challenges and risks, including that they do not advance our business strategy, that we get an unsatisfactory return on our investment, that we have difficulty integrating and retaining new employees, business systems, and technology, or that they distract management from our other businesses. If an arrangement fails to adequately anticipate changing circumstances and interests of a party, it may result in early termination or renegotiation of the arrangement. The success of these transactions and arrangements will depend in part on our ability to leverage them to enhance our existing products and services or develop compelling new ones. It may take longer than expected to realize the full benefits from these transactions and arrangements such as increased revenue or enhanced efficiencies, or the benefits may ultimately be smaller than we expected. These events could adversely affect our consolidated financial statements.

If our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets become impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings. We acquire other companies and intangible assets and may not realize all the economic benefit from those acquisitions, which could cause an impairment of goodwill or intangibles. We review our amortizable intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. We test goodwill for impairment at least annually. Factors that may be a change in circumstances, indicating that the carrying value of our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets may not be recoverable, include a decline in our stock price and market capitalization, reduced future cash flow estimates, and slower growth rates in industry segments in which we participate. We have in the past recorded, and may in the future be required to record a significant charge on our consolidated financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets is determined, negatively affecting our results of operations. Our acquisition of LinkedIn resulted in a significant increase in our goodwill and intangible asset balances.

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Cyberattacks and security vulnerabilities could lead to reduced revenue, increased costs, liability claims, or harm to our reputation or competitive position.

Security of our information technology

Threats to IT security can take a variety of forms. Individual and groups of hackers and sophisticated organizations, including state-sponsored organizations or nation-states, continuously undertake attacks that pose threats to our customers and our IT. These actors may use a wide variety of methods, which may include developing and deploying malicious software or exploiting vulnerabilities in hardware, software, or other infrastructure in order to attack our products and services or gain access to our networks and datacenters, using social engineering techniques to induce our employees, users, partners, or customers to disclose passwords or other sensitive information or take other actions to gain access to our data or our users’ or customers’ data, or acting in a coordinated manner to launch distributed denial of service or other coordinated attacks. Inadequate account security practices may also result in unauthorized access to confidential data. For example, system administrators may fail to timely remove employee account access when no longer appropriate. Employees or third parties may intentionally compromise our or our users’ security or systems, or reveal confidential information.

Cyberthreats are constantly evolving, increasing the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. We may have no current capability to detect certain vulnerabilities, which may allow them to persist in the environment over long periods of time. Cyberthreats can have cascading impacts that unfold with increasing speed across our internal networks and systems and those of our partners and customers. Breaches of our facilities, network, or data security could disrupt the security of our systems and business applications, impair our ability to provide services to our customers and protect the privacy of their data, result in product development delays, compromise confidential or technical business information harming our reputation or competitive position, result in theft or misuse of our intellectual property or other assets, require us to allocate more resources to improved technologies, or otherwise adversely affect our business.

In addition, our internal IT environment continues to evolve. Often, we are early adopters of new devices and technologies. We embrace new ways of sharing data and communicating internally and with partners and customers using methods such as social networking and other consumer-oriented technologies. Our business policies and internal security controls may not keep pace with these changes as new threats emerge.

Security of our products, services, devices, and customers’ data

The security of our products and services is important in our customers’ decisions to purchase or use our products or services. Security threats are a significant challenge to companies like us whose business is providing technology products and services to others. Threats to our own IT infrastructure can also affect our customers. Customers using our cloud-based services rely on the security of our infrastructure, including hardware and other elements provided by third parties, to ensure the reliability of our services and the protection of their data. Adversaries tend to focus their efforts on the most popular operating systems, programs, and services, including many of ours, and we expect that to continue. Adversaries that acquire user account information at other companies can use that information to compromise our users’ accounts where accounts share the same attributes like passwords. Inadequate account security practices may also result in unauthorized access. We are also increasingly incorporating open source software into our products. There may be vulnerabilities in open source software that may make our products susceptible to cyberattacks.

To defend against security threats to our internal IT systems, our cloud-based services, and our customers’ systems, we must continuously engineer more secure products and services, enhance security and reliability features, improve the deployment of software updates to address security vulnerabilities in our own products as well as those provided by others, develop mitigation technologies that help to secure customers from attacks even when software updates are not deployed, maintain the digital security infrastructure that protects the integrity of our network, products, and services, and provide security tools such as firewalls and anti-virus software and information about the need to deploy security measures and the impact of doing so.

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The cost of these steps could reduce our operating margins. If we fail to do these things well, actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in our products and services, data corruption issues, or reduced performance could harm our reputation and lead customers to reduce or delay future purchases of products or subscriptions to services, or to use competing products or services. Customers may also spend more on protecting their existing computer systems from attack, which could delay adoption of additional products or services. Customers may fail to update their systems, continue to run software or operating systems we no longer support, or may fail timely to install or enable security patches. Any of these could adversely affect our reputation and revenue. Actual or perceived vulnerabilities may lead to claims against us. Our license agreements typically contain provisions that eliminate or limit our exposure to liability, but there is no assurance these provisions will withstand legal challenges. At times, to achieve commercial objectives, we may enter into agreements with larger liability exposure to customers.

As illustrated by the Spectre and Meltdown threats, our products operate in conjunction with and are dependent on products and components across a broad ecosystem of third parties. If there is a security vulnerability in one of these components, and if there is a security exploit targeting it, we could face increased costs, liability claims, reduced revenue, or harm to our reputation or competitive position.

Disclosure and misuse of personal data could result in liability and harm our reputation. As we continue to grow the number and scale of our cloud-based offerings, we store and process increasingly large amounts of personally identifiable information of our customers and users. The continued occurrence of high-profile data breaches provides evidence of an external environment increasingly hostile to information security. Despite our efforts to improve the security controls across our business groups and geographies, it is possible our security controls over personal data, our training of employees and third parties on data security, and other practices we follow may not prevent the improper disclosure or misuse of customer or user data we or our vendors store and manage. In addition, third parties who have limited access to our customer or user data may use this data in unauthorized ways. Improper disclosure or misuse could harm our reputation, lead to legal exposure to customers or users, or subject us to liability under laws that protect personal data, resulting in increased costs or loss of revenue. Our software products and services also enable our customers and users to store and process personal data on-premises or, increasingly, in a cloud-based environment we host. Government authorities can sometimes require us to produce customer or user data in response to valid legal orders. In the U.S. and elsewhere, we advocate for transparency concerning these requests and appropriate limitations on government authority to compel disclosure. Despite our efforts to protect customer and user data, perceptions that the collection, use, and retention of personal information is not satisfactorily protected could inhibit sales of our products or services, and could limit adoption of our cloud-based solutions by consumers, businesses, and government entities. Additional security measures we may take to address customer or user concerns, or constraints on our flexibility to determine where and how to operate datacenters in response to customer or user expectations or governmental rules or actions, may cause higher operating expenses or hinder growth of our products and services.

We may not be able to protect information in our products and services from use by others. LinkedIn and other Microsoft products and services contain valuable information and content protected by contractual restrictions or technical measures. In certain cases, we have made commitments to our members and users to limit access to or use of this information. Changes in the law or interpretations of the law may weaken our ability to prevent third parties from scraping or gathering information or content through use of bots or other measures and using it for their own benefit, thus diminishing the value of our products and services.

Abuse of our platforms may harm our reputation or user engagement.

Advertising, professional, and social platform abuses

For LinkedIn, Microsoft Advertising, MSN, Xbox Live, and other products and services that provide content or host ads that come from or can be influenced by third parties, our reputation or user engagement may be negatively affected by activity that is hostile or inappropriate. This activity may come from users impersonating other people or organizations, use of our products or services to spread terrorist or violent extremist content or to disseminate information that may be viewed as misleading or intended to manipulate the opinions of our users, or the use of our products or services that violates our terms of service or otherwise for objectionable or illegal ends. Preventing or responding to these actions may require us to make substantial investments in people and technology and these investments may not be successful, adversely affecting our business and consolidated financial statements.

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Harmful content online  

Our hosted consumer services as well as our enterprise services may be used by third parties to disseminate harmful or illegal content in violation of our terms or applicable law. We may not proactively discover such content due to scale and the limitations of existing technologies, and when discovered by users, such content may negatively affect our reputation, our brands, and user engagement. Regulations and other initiatives to make platforms responsible for preventing or eliminating harmful content online are gaining momentum and we expect this to continue. We may be subject to enhanced regulatory oversight, substantial liability, or reputational damage if we fail to comply with content moderation regulations, adversely affecting our business and consolidated financial statements.

The development of the IoT presents security, privacy, and execution risks. To support the growth of the intelligent cloud and the intelligent edge, we are developing products, services, and technologies to power the IoT, a network of distributed and interconnected devices employing sensors, data, and computing capabilities including AI. The IoT’s great potential also carries substantial risks. IoT products and services may contain defects in design, manufacture, or operation, that make them insecure or ineffective for their intended purposes. An IoT solution has multiple layers of hardware, sensors, processors, software, and firmware, several of which we may not develop or control. Each layer, including the weakest layer, can impact the security of the whole system. Many IoT devices have limited interfaces and ability to be updated or patched. IoT solutions may collect large amounts of data, and our handling of IoT data may not satisfy customers or regulatory requirements. IoT scenarios may increasingly affect personal health and safety. If IoT solutions that include our technologies do not work as intended, violate the law, or harm individuals or businesses, we may be subject to legal claims or enforcement actions. These risks, if realized, may increase our costs, damage our reputation or brands, or negatively impact our revenues or margins.  

Issues in the use of AI in our offerings may result in reputational harm or liability. We are building AI into many of our offerings and we expect this element of our business to grow. We envision a future in which AI operating in our devices, applications, and the cloud helps our customers be more productive in their work and personal lives. As with many disruptive innovations, AI presents risks and challenges that could affect its adoption, and therefore our business. AI algorithms may be flawed. Datasets may be insufficient or contain biased information. Inappropriate or controversial data practices by Microsoft or others could impair the acceptance of AI solutions. These deficiencies could undermine the decisions, predictions, or analysis AI applications produce, subjecting us to competitive harm, legal liability, and brand or reputational harm. Some AI scenarios present ethical issues. If we enable or offer AI solutions that are controversial because of their impact on human rights, privacy, employment, or other social issues, we may experience brand or reputational harm.  

We may have excessive outages, data losses, and disruptions of our online services if we fail to maintain an adequate operations infrastructure. Our increasing user traffic, growth in services, and the complexity of our products and services demand more computing power. We spend substantial amounts to build, purchase, or lease datacenters and equipment and to upgrade our technology and network infrastructure to handle more traffic on our websites and in our datacenters. These demands continue to increase as we introduce new products and services and support the growth of existing services such as Bing, Azure, Microsoft Account services, Office 365, Microsoft Teams, Dynamics 365, OneDrive, SharePoint Online, Skype, Xbox Live, and Outlook.com. We are rapidly growing our business of providing a platform and back-end hosting for services provided by third parties to their end users. Maintaining, securing, and expanding this infrastructure is expensive and complex. It requires that we maintain an Internet connectivity infrastructure that is robust and reliable within competitive and regulatory constraints that continue to evolve. Inefficiencies or operational failures, including temporary or permanent loss of customer data or insufficient Internet connectivity, could diminish the quality of our products, services, and user experience resulting in contractual liability, claims by customers and other third parties, regulatory actions, damage to our reputation, and loss of current and potential users, subscribers, and advertisers, each of which may adversely impact our consolidated financial statements.

We may experience quality or supply problems. Our hardware products such as Xbox consoles, Surface devices, and other devices we design, manufacture, and market are highly complex and can have defects in design, manufacture, or associated software. We could incur significant expenses, lost revenue, and reputational harm as a result of recalls, safety alerts, or product liability claims if we fail to prevent, detect, or address such issues through design, testing, or warranty repairs.

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Our software products and services also may experience quality or reliability problems. The highly sophisticated software we develop may contain bugs and other defects that interfere with their intended operation. Our customers increasingly rely on us for critical functions, potentially magnifying the impact of quality or reliability issues. Any defects we do not detect and fix in pre-release testing could cause reduced sales and revenue, damage to our reputation, repair or remediation costs, delays in the release of new products or versions, or legal liability. Although our license agreements typically contain provisions that eliminate or limit our exposure to liability, there is no assurance these provisions will withstand legal challenge.

We acquire some device and datacenter components from sole suppliers. Our competitors use some of the same suppliers and their demand for hardware components can affect the capacity available to us. If a component from a sole-source supplier is delayed or becomes unavailable, whether because of supplier capacity constraint, industry shortages, legal or regulatory changes, or other reasons, we may not obtain timely replacement supplies, resulting in reduced sales or inadequate datacenter capacity. Component shortages, excess or obsolete inventory, or price reductions resulting in inventory adjustments may increase our cost of revenue. Xbox consoles, Surface devices, datacenter servers, and other hardware are assembled in Asia and other geographies that may be subject to disruptions in the supply chain, resulting in shortages that would affect our revenue and operating margins. These same risks would apply to any other hardware and software products we may offer.

We may not be able to protect our source code from copying if there is an unauthorized disclosure. Source code, the detailed program commands for our operating systems and other software programs, is critical to our business. Although we license portions of our application and operating system source code to several licensees, we take significant measures to protect the secrecy of large portions of our source code. If our source code leaks, we might lose future trade secret protection for that code. It may then become easier for third parties to compete with our products by copying functionality, which could adversely affect our revenue and operating margins. Unauthorized disclosure of source code also could increase the security risks described in the next paragraph.

Legal changes, our evolving business model, piracy, and other factors may decrease the value of our intellectual property. Protecting our intellectual property rights and combating unlicensed copying and use of our software and other intellectual property on a global basis is difficult. While piracy adversely affects U.S. revenue, the impact on revenue from outside the U.S. is more significant, particularly countries in which the legal system provides less protection for intellectual property rights. Our revenue in these markets may grow more slowly than the underlying device market. Similarly, the absence of harmonized patent laws makes it more difficult to ensure consistent respect for patent rights. Throughout the world, we educate users about the benefits of licensing genuine products and obtaining indemnification benefits for intellectual property risks, and we educate lawmakers about the advantages of a business climate where intellectual property rights are protected. Reductions in the legal protection for software intellectual property rights could adversely affect revenue.

We expend significant resources to patent the intellectual property we create with the expectation that we will generate revenues by incorporating that intellectual property in our products or services or, in some instances, by licensing our patents to others in return for a royalty. Changes in the law may continue to weaken our ability to prevent the use of patented technology or collect revenue for licensing our patents. These include legislative changes and regulatory actions that make it more difficult to obtain injunctions, and the increasing use of legal process to challenge issued patents. Similarly, licensees of our patents may fail to satisfy their obligations to pay us royalties, or may contest the scope and extent of their obligations. The royalties we can obtain to monetize our intellectual property may decline because of the evolution of technology, selling price changes in products using licensed patents, or the difficulty of discovering infringements. Finally, our increasing engagement with open source software will also cause us to license our intellectual property rights broadly in certain situations and may negatively impact revenue.

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Third parties may claim we infringe their intellectual property rights. From time to time, others claim we infringe their intellectual property rights. The number of these claims may grow because of constant technological change in the markets in which we compete, the extensive patent coverage of existing technologies, the rapid rate of issuance of new patents, and our offering of first-party devices, such as Microsoft Surface. To resolve these claims, we may enter into royalty and licensing agreements on terms that are less favorable than currently available, stop selling or redesign affected products or services, or pay damages to satisfy indemnification commitments with our customers. These outcomes may cause operating margins to decline. Besides money damages, in some jurisdictions plaintiffs can seek injunctive relief that may limit or prevent importing, marketing, and selling our products or services that have infringing technologies. In some countries, such as Germany, an injunction can be issued before the parties have fully litigated the validity of the underlying patents. We have paid significant amounts to settle claims related to the use of technology and intellectual property rights and to procure intellectual property rights as part of our strategy to manage this risk, and may continue to do so.

We have claims and lawsuits against us that may result in adverse outcomes. We are subject to a variety of claims and lawsuits. These claims may arise from a wide variety of business practices and initiatives, including major new product releases such as Windows 10, significant business transactions, warranty or product claims, and employment practices. Adverse outcomes in some or all of these claims may result in significant monetary damages or injunctive relief that could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business. The litigation and other claims are subject to inherent uncertainties and management’s view of these matters may change in the future. A material adverse impact on our consolidated financial statements could occur for the period in which the effect of an unfavorable outcome becomes probable and reasonably estimable.

Government litigation and regulatory activity relating to competition rules may limit how we design and market our products. As a leading global software and device maker, government agencies closely scrutinize us under U.S. and foreign competition laws. Governments are actively enforcing competition laws and regulations, and this includes scrutiny in potentially large markets such as the European Union (“EU”), the U.S., and China. Some jurisdictions also allow competitors or consumers to assert claims of anti-competitive conduct. U.S. federal and state antitrust authorities have previously brought enforcement actions and continue to scrutinize our business.

The European Commission (“the Commission”) closely scrutinizes the design of high-volume Microsoft products and the terms on which we make certain technologies used in these products, such as file formats, programming interfaces, and protocols, available to other companies. Flagship product releases such as Windows 10 can receive significant scrutiny under competition laws. For example, in 2004, the Commission ordered us to create new versions of our Windows operating system that do not include certain multimedia technologies and to provide our competitors with specifications for how to implement certain proprietary Windows communications protocols in their own products. In 2009, the Commission accepted a set of commitments we offered to address the Commission’s concerns relating to competition in web browsing software, including an undertaking to address Commission concerns relating to interoperability. The web browsing commitments expired in 2014. The remaining obligations may limit our ability to innovate in Windows or other products in the future, diminish the developer appeal of the Windows platform, and increase our product development costs. The availability of licenses related to protocols and file formats may enable competitors to develop software products that better mimic the functionality of our products, which could hamper sales of our products.

Our portfolio of first-party devices continues to grow; at the same time our OEM partners offer a large variety of devices for our platforms. As a result, increasingly we both cooperate and compete with our OEM partners, creating a risk that we fail to do so in compliance with competition rules. Regulatory scrutiny in this area may increase. Certain foreign governments, particularly in China and other countries in Asia, have advanced arguments under their competition laws that exert downward pressure on royalties for our intellectual property.

Government regulatory actions and court decisions such as these may result in fines, or hinder our ability to provide the benefits of our software to consumers and businesses, reducing the attractiveness of our products and the revenue that come from them. New competition law actions could be initiated, potentially using previous actions as precedent. The outcome of such actions, or steps taken to avoid them, could adversely affect us in a variety of ways, including:

 

We may have to choose between withdrawing products from certain geographies to avoid fines or designing and developing alternative versions of those products to comply with government rulings, which may entail a delay in a product release and removing functionality that customers want or on which developers rely.

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We may be required to make available licenses to our proprietary technologies on terms that do not reflect their fair market value or do not protect our associated intellectual property.

 

We are subject to a variety of ongoing commitments because of court or administrative orders, consent decrees, or other voluntary actions we have taken. If we fail to comply with these commitments, we may incur litigation costs and be subject to substantial fines or other remedial actions.

 

Our ability to realize anticipated Windows 10 post-sale monetization opportunities may be limited.

Our global operations subject us to potential liability under anti-corruption, trade protection, and other laws and regulations. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and other anti-corruption laws and regulations (“Anti-Corruption Laws”) prohibit corrupt payments by our employees, vendors, or agents, and the accounting provisions of the FCPA require us to maintain accurate books and records and adequate internal controls. From time to time, we receive inquiries from authorities in the U.S. and elsewhere which may be based on reports from employees and others about our business activities outside the U.S. and our compliance with Anti-Corruption Laws. Periodically, we receive such reports directly and investigate them. On July 22, 2019, our Hungarian subsidiary entered into a non-prosecution agreement (“NPA”) with the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and we agreed to the terms of a cease and desist order with the Securities and Exchange Commission. These agreements required us to pay $25.3 million in monetary penalties, disgorgement, and interest pertaining to activities at Microsoft’s subsidiary in Hungary. The NPA, which has a three-year term, also contains certain ongoing compliance requirements, including the obligations to disclose to the DOJ issues that may implicate the FCPA and to cooperate in any inquiries. Most countries in which we operate also have competition laws that prohibit competitors from colluding or otherwise attempting to reduce competition between themselves. While we devote substantial resources to our U.S. and international compliance programs and have implemented policies, training, and internal controls designed to reduce the risk of corrupt payments and collusive activity, our employees, vendors, or agents may violate our policies. Our failure to comply with Anti-Corruption Laws or competition laws could result in significant fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation. Operations outside the U.S. may be affected by changes in trade protection laws, policies, sanctions, and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment. We may be subject to legal liability and reputational damage if we sell goods or services in violation of U.S. trade sanctions on restricted entities or countries such as Iran, North Korea, Cuba, Sudan, and Syria.

Other regulatory areas that may apply to our products and online services offerings include user privacy, telecommunications, data storage and protection, and online content. For example, some regulators are taking the position that our offerings such as Skype are covered by existing laws regulating telecommunications services, and some new laws are defining more of our services as regulated telecommunications services. This trend may continue and will result in these offerings being subjected to additional data protection, security, and law enforcement surveillance obligations. Data protection authorities may assert that our collection, use, and management of customer data is inconsistent with their laws and regulations. Legislative or regulatory action relating to cybersecurity requirements may increase the costs to develop, implement, or secure our products and services. Legislative or regulatory action could also emerge in the area of AI and content moderation, increasing costs or restricting opportunity. Applying these laws and regulations to our business is often unclear, subject to change over time, and sometimes may conflict from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Additionally, these laws and governments’ approach to their enforcement, and our products and services, are continuing to evolve. Compliance with these types of regulation may involve significant costs or require changes in products or business practices that result in reduced revenue. Noncompliance could result in the imposition of penalties or orders we stop the alleged noncompliant activity.

We strive to empower all people and organizations to achieve more, and accessibility of our products is an important aspect of this goal. There is increasing pressure from advocacy groups, regulators, competitors, customers, and other stakeholders to make technology more accessible. If our products do not meet customer expectations or emerging global accessibility requirements, we could lose sales opportunities or face regulatory actions

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Laws and regulations relating to the handling of personal data may impede the adoption of our services or result in increased costs, legal claims, fines against us, or reputational damage. The growth of our Internet- and cloud-based services internationally relies increasingly on the movement of data across national boundaries. Legal requirements relating to the collection, storage, handling, and transfer of personal data continue to evolve. For example, the EU and the U.S. formally entered into a new framework in July 2016 that provides a mechanism for companies to transfer data from EU member states to the U.S. This framework, called the Privacy Shield, is intended to address shortcomings identified by the European Court of Justice in a predecessor mechanism. The Privacy Shield and other mechanisms are currently subject to challenges in European courts, which may lead to uncertainty about the legal basis for data transfers across the Atlantic. The Privacy Shield and other potential rules on the flow of data across borders could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our products and services in some markets. In May 2018, a new EU law governing data practices and privacy, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), became effective. The law, which applies to all of our activities conducted from an establishment in the EU or related to products and services offered in the EU, imposes a range of new compliance obligations regarding the handling of personal data. Engineering efforts to build new capabilities to facilitate compliance with the law have entailed substantial expense and the diversion of engineering resources from other projects and may continue to do so. We might experience reduced demand for our offerings if we are unable to engineer products that meet our legal duties or help our customers meet their obligations under the GDPR or other data regulations, or if the changes we implement to comply with the GDPR make our offerings less attractive. The GDPR imposes significant new obligations and compliance with these obligations depends in part on how particular regulators interpret and apply them. If we fail to comply with the GDPR, or if regulators assert we have failed to comply with the GDPR, it may lead to regulatory enforcement actions, which can result in monetary penalties of up to 4% of worldwide revenue, private lawsuits, or reputational damage. In the U.S., California has adopted and several states are considering adopting laws and regulations imposing obligations regarding the handling of personal data.

The Company’s investment in gaining insights from data is becoming central to the value of the services we deliver to customers, to our operational efficiency and key opportunities in monetization, customer perceptions of quality, and operational efficiency. Our ability to use data in this way may be constrained by regulatory developments that impede realizing the expected return from this investment. Ongoing legal reviews by regulators may result in burdensome or inconsistent requirements, including data sovereignty and localization requirements, affecting the location and movement of our customer and internal employee data as well as the management of that data. Compliance with applicable laws and regulations regarding personal data may require changes in services, business practices, or internal systems that result in increased costs, lower revenue, reduced efficiency, or greater difficulty in competing with foreign-based firms. Compliance with data regulations might limit our ability to innovate or offer certain features and functionality in some jurisdictions where we operate. Failure to comply with existing or new rules may result in significant penalties or orders to stop the alleged noncompliant activity, as well as negative publicity and diversion of management time and effort.

We may have additional tax liabilities. We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and many foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. For example, compliance with the 2017 United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) may require the collection of information not regularly produced within the Company, the use of estimates in our consolidated financial statements, and the exercise of significant judgment in accounting for its provisions. As regulations and guidance evolve with respect to the TCJA, and as we gather more information and perform more analysis, our results may differ from previous estimates and may materially affect our consolidated financial statements.

We regularly are under audit by tax authorities in different jurisdictions. Although we believe that our provision for income taxes and our tax estimates are reasonable, tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken.  In addition, economic and political pressures to increase tax revenue in various jurisdictions may make resolving tax disputes favorably more difficult. We are currently under Internal Revenue Service audit for prior tax years, with the primary unresolved issues relating to transfer pricing. The final resolution of those audits, and other audits or litigation, may differ from the amounts recorded in our consolidated financial statements and may materially affect our consolidated financial statements in the period or periods in which that determination is made.

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Item 1A

 

We earn a significant amount of our operating income outside the U.S. A change in the mix of earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in our business or structure, or the expiration of or disputes about certain tax agreements in a particular country may result in higher effective tax rates for the Company. In addition, changes in U.S. federal and state or international tax laws applicable to corporate multinationals, other fundamental law changes currently being considered by many countries, including in the U.S., and changes in taxing jurisdictions’ administrative interpretations, decisions, policies, and positions may materially adversely impact our consolidated financial statements.

If our reputation or our brands are damaged, our business and operating results may be harmed. Our reputation and brands are globally recognized and are important to our business. Our reputation and brands affect our ability to attract and retain consumer, business, and public-sector customers. There are numerous ways our reputation or brands could be damaged. These include product safety or quality issues, or our environmental impact and sustainability, supply chain practices, or human rights record. We may experience backlash from customers, government entities, advocacy groups, employees, and other stakeholders that disagree with our product offering decisions or public policy positions. Damage to our reputation or our brands may occur from, among other things:

 

The introduction of new features, products, services, or terms of service that customers, users, or partners do not like.

 

Public scrutiny of our decisions regarding user privacy, data practices, or content.

 

Data security breaches, compliance failures, or actions of partners or individual employees.

The proliferation of social media may increase the likelihood, speed, and magnitude of negative brand events. If our brands or reputation are damaged, it could negatively impact our revenues or margins, or ability to attract the most highly qualified employees.

Our global business exposes us to operational and economic risks. Our customers are located throughout the world and a significant part of our revenue comes from international sales. The global nature of our business creates operational and economic risks. Our results of operations may be affected by global, regional, and local economic developments, monetary policy, inflation, and recession, as well as political and military disputes. In addition, our international growth strategy includes certain markets, the developing nature of which presents several risks, including deterioration of social, political, labor, or economic conditions in a country or region, and difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations. Emerging nationalist trends in specific countries may significantly alter the trade environment. Changes to trade policy or agreements as a result of populism, protectionism, or economic nationalism may result in higher tariffs, local sourcing initiatives, or other developments that make it more difficult to sell our products in foreign countries. Disruptions of these kinds in developed or emerging markets could negatively impact demand for our products and services or increase operating costs. Although we hedge a portion of our international currency exposure, significant fluctuations in foreign exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies may adversely affect our results of operations.

Adverse economic or market conditions may harm our business. Worsening economic conditions, including inflation, recession, or other changes in economic conditions, may cause lower IT spending and adversely affect our revenue. If demand for PCs, servers, and other computing devices declines, or consumer or business spending for those products declines, our revenue will be adversely affected. Substantial revenue comes from our U.S. government contracts. An extended federal government shutdown resulting from failing to pass budget appropriations, adopt continuing funding resolutions or raise the debt ceiling, and other budgetary decisions limiting or delaying federal government spending, could reduce government IT spending on our products and services and adversely affect our revenue.

Our product distribution system relies on an extensive partner and retail network. OEMs building devices that run our software have also been a significant means of distribution. The impact of economic conditions on our partners, such as the bankruptcy of a major distributor, OEM, or retailer, could cause sales channel disruption.

Challenging economic conditions also may impair the ability of our customers to pay for products and services they have purchased. As a result, allowances for doubtful accounts and write-offs of accounts receivable may increase.

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We maintain an investment portfolio of various holdings, types, and maturities. These investments are subject to general credit, liquidity, market, and interest rate risks, which may be exacerbated by market downturns or events that affect global financial markets. A significant part of our investment portfolio comprises U.S. government securities. If global financial markets decline for long periods, or if there is a downgrade of the U.S. government credit rating due to an actual or threatened default on government debt, our investment portfolio may be adversely affected and we could determine that more of our investments have experienced an other-than-temporary decline in fair value, requiring impairment charges that could adversely affect our consolidated financial statements.

Catastrophic events or geopolitical conditions may disrupt our business. A disruption or failure of our systems or operations because of a major earthquake, weather event, cyberattack, terrorist attack, or other catastrophic event could cause delays in completing sales, providing services, or performing other critical functions. Our corporate headquarters, a significant portion of our research and development activities, and certain other essential business operations are in the Seattle, Washington area, and we have other business operations in the Silicon Valley area of California, both of which are seismically active regions. A catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of any of our critical business or IT systems, or the infrastructure or systems they rely on, such as power grids, could harm our ability to conduct normal business operations. Providing our customers with more services and solutions in the cloud puts a premium on the resilience of our systems and strength of our business continuity management plans, and magnifies the potential impact of prolonged service outages on our consolidated financial statements.

Abrupt political change, terrorist activity, and armed conflict pose a risk of general economic disruption in affected countries, which may increase our operating costs. These conditions also may add uncertainty to the timing and budget for technology investment decisions by our customers, and may cause supply chain disruptions for hardware manufacturers. Geopolitical change may result in changing regulatory requirements that could impact our operating strategies, access to global markets, hiring, and profitability. Geopolitical instability may lead to sanctions and impact our ability to do business in some markets or with some public-sector customers. Any of these changes may negatively impact our revenues.

The long-term effects of climate change on the global economy or the IT industry in particular are unclear. Environmental regulations or changes in the supply, demand or available sources of energy or other natural resources may affect the availability or cost of goods and services, including natural resources, necessary to run our business. Changes in weather where we operate may increase the costs of powering and cooling computer hardware we use to develop software and provide cloud-based services.

Our business depends on our ability to attract and retain talented employees. Our business is based on successfully attracting and retaining talented employees representing diverse backgrounds, experiences, and skill sets. The market for highly skilled workers and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive. Maintaining our brand and reputation, as well as a diverse and inclusive work environment that enables all our employees to thrive, are important to our ability to recruit and retain employees. We are also limited in our ability to recruit internationally by restrictive domestic immigration laws. Changes to U.S. immigration policies that restrain the flow of technical and professional talent may inhibit our ability to adequately staff our research and development efforts. If we are less successful in our recruiting efforts, or if we cannot retain highly skilled workers and key leaders, our ability to develop and deliver successful products and services may be adversely affected. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution. How employment-related laws are interpreted and applied to our workforce practices may result in increased operating costs and less flexibility in how we meet our workforce needs.

 

 

 

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Item 1B, 2, 3, 4

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

We have received no written comments regarding our periodic or current reports from the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission that were issued 180 days or more preceding the end of our fiscal year 2019 that remain unresolved.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our corporate headquarters are located in Redmond, Washington. We have approximately 15 million square feet of space located in King County, Washington that is used for engineering, sales, marketing, and operations, among other general and administrative purposes. These facilities include approximately 10 million square feet of owned space situated on approximately 520 acres of land we own at our corporate headquarters, and approximately five million square feet of space we lease. In addition, we own and lease space domestically that includes office, datacenter, and retail space.

We also own and lease facilities internationally. The largest owned properties include: our research and development centers in China and India; our datacenters in Ireland, the Netherlands, and Singapore; and our operations and facilities in Ireland and the United Kingdom. The largest leased properties include space in the following locations: Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Japan, and the United Kingdom.

In addition to the above locations, we have various product development facilities, both domestically and internationally, as described under Research and Development (Part I, Item 1 of this Form 10-K).

The table below shows a summary of the square footage of our office, datacenter, retail, and other facilities owned and leased domestically and internationally as of June 30, 2019:

 

(Square feet in millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Location

 

Owned

 

 

Leased

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

U.S.

 

 

18

 

 

 

14

 

 

 

32

 

International

 

 

6

 

 

 

14

 

 

 

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 24

 

 

 

28

 

 

 

  52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

While not material to the Company, the Company makes the following annual report of the general activities of the Company’s Antitrust Compliance Office as required by the Final Order and Judgment in Barovic v. Ballmer et al, United States District Court for the Western District of Washington (“Final Order”). For more information see http://aka.ms/MSLegalNotice2015. These annual reports will continue through 2020. During fiscal year 2019, the Antitrust Compliance Office (a) monitored the Company’s compliance with the European Commission Decision of March 24, 2004, (“2004 Decision”) and with the Company’s Public Undertaking to the European Commission dated December 16, 2009 (“2009 Undertaking”); (b) monitored, in the manner required by the Final Order, employee, customer, competitor, regulator, or other third-party complaints regarding compliance with the 2004 Decision, the 2009 Undertaking, or other EU or U.S. laws or regulations governing tying, bundling, and exclusive dealing contracts; and, (c) monitored, in the manner required by the Final Order, the training of the Company’s employees regarding the Company’s antitrust compliance polices. In addition, the Antitrust Compliance Officer reports to the Regulatory and Public Policy Committee of the Board at each of its regularly scheduled meetings and to the full Board annually.

Refer to Note 16 – Contingencies of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for information regarding legal proceedings in which we are involved.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

 

29


PART II

Item 5

 

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

MARKET AND STOCKHOLDERS

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol MSFT. On July 29, 2019, there were 94,069 registered holders of record of our common stock.

 

SHARE REPURCHASES AND DIVIDENDS

Following are our monthly share repurchases for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2019:

 

Period

 

Total Number
of Shares

Purchased

 

 

Average

Price Paid
per Share

 

 

Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs

 

 

Approximate Dollar Value of

Shares that May Yet be

Purchased under the Plans
or Programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(In millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 1, 2019 – April 30, 2019

 

 

8,547,612

 

 

$

122.85

 

 

 

8,547,612

 

 

$

14,551

 

May 1, 2019 – May 31, 2019

 

 

14,029,339

 

 

 

126.32

 

 

 

14,029,339

 

 

 

12,778

 

June 1, 2019 – June 30, 2019

 

 

10,469,682

 

 

 

131.59

 

 

 

10,469,682

 

 

 

11,401

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33,046,633

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33,046,633

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All share repurchases were made using cash resources. Our share repurchases may occur through open market purchases or pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 trading plan. The above table excludes shares repurchased to settle employee tax withholding related to the vesting of stock awards.

 

Our Board of Directors declared the following dividends during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2019:

 

Declaration Date

 

 

Record Date

 

 

 

Payment Date

 

 

 

Dividend

Per Share

 

 

 

Amount

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(In millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 12, 2019

 

 

August 15, 2019

 

 

 

September 12, 2019

 

 

$

0.46

 

 

$

3,516

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We returned $7.7 billion to shareholders in the form of share repurchases and dividends in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2019.  Refer to Note 17 – Stockholders’ Equity of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion regarding share repurchases and dividends.

 

 

30


PART II

Item 6

 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

 

(In millions, except per share amounts)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended June 30,

 

 

2019

(a)

 

 

2018

 

 

 

2017

(d)(e)

 

 

2016

(d)

 

 

2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

 

$

125,843

 

 

$

110,360

 

 

$

96,571

 

 

$

91,154

 

 

$

93,580

 

Gross margin

 

 

82,933

 

 

 

72,007

 

 

 

62,310

 

 

 

58,374

 

 

 

60,542

 

Operating income

 

 

42,959

 

 

 

35,058

 

 

 

29,025

(f)

 

 

26,078

(g)

 

 

18,161

(h)

Net income

 

 

39,240

(b)

 

 

16,571

(c)

 

 

25,489

(f)

 

 

20,539

(g)

 

 

12,193

(h)

Diluted earnings per share

 

 

5.06

(b)

 

 

2.13

(c)

 

 

3.25

(f)

 

 

2.56

(g)

 

 

1.48

(h)

Cash dividends declared per share

 

 

1.84

 

 

 

1.68

 

 

 

1.56

 

 

 

1.44

 

 

 

1.24

 

Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments

 

 

133,819

 

 

 

133,768

 

 

 

132,981

 

 

 

113,240

 

 

 

96,526

 

Total assets

 

 

286,556

 

 

 

258,848

 

 

 

250,312

 

 

 

  202,897

 

 

 

174,303

 

Long-term obligations

 

 

114,806

 

 

 

117,642

 

 

 

106,856

 

 

 

66,705

 

 

 

44,574

 

Stockholders’ equity

 

 

102,330

 

 

 

82,718

 

 

 

87,711

 

 

 

83,090

 

 

 

80,083

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a)

GitHub has been included in our consolidated results of operations starting on the October 25, 2018 acquisition date.

(b)

Includes a $2.6 billion net income tax benefit related to intangible property transfers and a $157 million net charge related to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”), which together increased net income and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) by $2.4 billion and $0.31, respectively. Refer to Note 12 – Income Taxes of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

(c)

Includes a $13.7 billion net charge related to the enactment of the TCJA, which decreased net income and diluted EPS by $13.7 billion and $1.75, respectively. Refer to Note 12 – Income Taxes of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

(d)

Reflects the impact of the adoption of new accounting standards in fiscal year 2018 related to revenue recognition and leases.

(e)

LinkedIn has been included in our consolidated results of operations starting on the December 8, 2016 acquisition date.

(f)

Includes $306 million of employee severance expenses primarily related to our sales and marketing restructuring plan, which decreased operating income, net income, and diluted EPS by $306 million, $243 million, and $0.04, respectively.   

(g)

Includes $630 million of asset impairment charges related to our Phone business and $480 million of restructuring charges associated with our Phone business restructuring plans, which together decreased operating income, net income, and diluted EPS by $1.1 billion, $895 million, and $0.11, respectively.

(h)

Includes $7.5 billion of goodwill and asset impairment charges related to our Phone business and $2.5 billion of integration and restructuring expenses, primarily associated with our Phone business restructuring plans, which together decreased operating income, net income, and diluted EPS by $10.0 billion, $9.5 billion, and $1.15, respectively.

 

 

 

31


PART II

Item 7

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to help the reader understand the results of operations and financial condition of Microsoft Corporation. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K).

OVERVIEW

Microsoft is a technology company whose mission is to empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more. We strive to create local opportunity, growth, and impact in every country around the world. Our platforms and tools help drive small business productivity, large business competitiveness, and public-sector efficiency. They also support new startups, improve educational and health outcomes, and empower human ingenuity.

We generate revenue by offering a wide range of cloud-based and other services to people and businesses; licensing and supporting an array of software products; designing, manufacturing, and selling devices; and delivering relevant online advertising to a global audience. Our most significant expenses are related to compensating employees; designing, manufacturing, marketing, and selling our products and services; datacenter costs in support of our cloud-based services; and income taxes.

Highlights from fiscal year 2019 compared with fiscal year 2018 included:

 

Commercial cloud revenue, which includes Microsoft Office 365 Commercial, Microsoft Azure, the commercial portion of LinkedIn, Microsoft Dynamics 365, and other commercial cloud properties, increased 43% to $38.1 billion.

 

Office Commercial revenue increased 13%, driven by Office 365 Commercial growth of 33%.

 

Office Consumer revenue increased 7%, and Office 365 Consumer subscribers increased to 34.8 million.

 

LinkedIn revenue increased 28%, with record levels of engagement highlighted by LinkedIn sessions growth of 27%.

 

Dynamics revenue increased 15%, driven by Dynamics 365 growth of 47%.

 

Server products and cloud services revenue, including GitHub, increased 25%, driven by Azure growth of 72%.

 

Enterprise Services revenue increased 5%.

 

Windows original equipment manufacturer licensing (“Windows OEM”) revenue increased 4%.

 

Windows Commercial revenue increased 14%.

 

Microsoft Surface revenue increased 23%.

 

Gaming revenue increased 10%, driven by Xbox software and services growth of 19%.

 

Search advertising revenue, excluding traffic acquisition costs, increased 13%.

We have recast certain prior period commercial cloud metrics to include the commercial portion of LinkedIn to provide a comparable view of our commercial cloud business performance. The commercial portion of LinkedIn includes LinkedIn Recruiter, Sales Navigator, premium business subscriptions, and other services for organizations.

On October 25, 2018, we acquired GitHub, Inc. (“GitHub”) in a $7.5 billion stock transaction (inclusive of total cash payments of $1.3 billion in respect of vested GitHub equity awards and an indemnity escrow). The financial results of GitHub have been included in our consolidated financial statements since the date of the acquisition. GitHub is reported as part of our Intelligent Cloud segment. Refer to Note 8 – Business Combinations of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

32


PART II

Item 7

 

On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) was enacted into law, which significantly changed existing U.S. tax law and included numerous provisions that affect our business. We recorded a provisional net charge related to the enactment of the TCJA of $13.7 billion in fiscal year 2018, and adjusted our provisional net charge by recording additional tax expense of $157 million in the second quarter of fiscal year 2019. In the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2019, in response to the TCJA and recently issued regulations, we transferred certain intangible properties held by our foreign subsidiaries to the U.S. and Ireland, which resulted in a $2.6 billion net income tax benefit. Refer to Note 12 – Income Taxes of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

Industry Trends

Our industry is dynamic and highly competitive, with frequent changes in both technologies and business models. Each industry shift is an opportunity to conceive new products, new technologies, or new ideas that can further transform the industry and our business. At Microsoft, we push the boundaries of what is possible through a broad range of research and development activities that seek to identify and address the changing demands of customers and users, industry trends, and competitive forces.

Economic Conditions, Challenges, and Risks

The markets for software, devices, and cloud-based services are dynamic and highly competitive. Our competitors are developing new software and devices, while also deploying competing cloud-based services for consumers and businesses. The devices and form factors customers prefer evolve rapidly, and influence how users access services in the cloud, and in some cases, the user’s choice of which suite of cloud-based services to use. We must continue to evolve and adapt over an extended time in pace with this changing environment. The investments we are making in infrastructure and devices will continue to increase our operating costs and may decrease our operating margins.

Our success is highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain qualified employees. We hire a mix of university and industry talent worldwide. We compete for talented individuals globally by offering an exceptional working environment, broad customer reach, scale in resources, the ability to grow one’s career across many different products and businesses, and competitive compensation and benefits. Aggregate demand for our software, services, and devices is correlated to global macroeconomic and geopolitical factors, which remain dynamic.

Our international operations provide a significant portion of our total revenue and expenses. Many of these revenue and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, changes in foreign exchange rates may significantly affect revenue and expenses. Strengthening of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar throughout fiscal year 2018 positively impacted reported revenue and increased reported expenses from our international operations. Strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to certain foreign currencies did not significantly impact reported revenue or expenses from our international operations in the first and second quarters of fiscal year 2019, and reduced reported revenue and expenses from our international operations in the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year 2019.

Refer to Risk Factors (Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K) for a discussion of these factors and other risks.

Seasonality

Our revenue fluctuates quarterly and is generally higher in the second and fourth quarters of our fiscal year. Second quarter revenue is driven by corporate year-end spending trends in our major markets and holiday season spending by consumers, and fourth quarter revenue is driven by the volume of multi-year on-premises contracts executed during the period.

Reportable Segments

We report our financial performance based on the following segments: Productivity and Business Processes, Intelligent Cloud, and More Personal Computing. The segment amounts included in MD&A are presented on a basis consistent with our internal management reporting. All differences between our internal management reporting basis and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”), along with certain corporate-level and other activity, are included in Corporate and Other.

Additional information on our reportable segments is contained in Note 20 – Segment Information and Geographic Data of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K).

33


PART II

Item 7

 

SUMMARY RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

(In millions, except percentages and per share amounts)

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

Percentage
Change 2019

Versus 2018

 

 

Percentage
Change 2018

Versus 2017

 

 

 

Revenue

 

$

125,843

 

 

$

110,360

 

 

$

96,571

 

 

 

14%

 

 

 

14%

 

Gross margin

 

 

82,933

 

 

 

72,007

 

 

 

62,310

 

 

 

15%

 

 

 

16%

 

Operating income

 

 

42,959

 

 

 

35,058

 

 

 

29,025

 

 

 

23%

 

 

 

21%

 

Net income

 

 

39,240

 

 

 

16,571

 

 

 

25,489

 

 

 

137%

 

 

 

(35)%

 

Diluted earnings per share

 

 

5.06

 

 

 

2.13

 

 

 

3.25

 

 

 

138%

 

 

 

(34)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-GAAP operating income

 

 

42,959

 

 

 

35,058

 

 

 

29,331

 

 

 

23%

 

 

 

20%

 

Non-GAAP net income

 

 

36,830

 

 

 

30,267

 

 

 

25,732

 

 

 

22%

 

 

 

18%

 

Non-GAAP diluted earnings per share

 

 

4.75

 

 

 

3.88

 

 

 

3.29

 

 

 

22%

 

 

 

18%

 

 

 

 

Non-GAAP operating income, net income, and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) exclude the net tax impact of transfer of intangible properties, the net tax impact of the TCJA, and restructuring expenses. Refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section below for a reconciliation of our financial results reported in accordance with GAAP to non-GAAP financial results.

Fiscal Year 2019 Compared with Fiscal Year 2018

Revenue increased $15.5 billion or 14%, driven by growth across each of our segments. Intelligent Cloud revenue increased, driven by server products and cloud services. Productivity and Business Processes revenue increased, driven by Office and LinkedIn. More Personal Computing revenue increased, driven by Surface, Gaming, and Windows.

Gross margin increased $10.9 billion or 15%, driven by growth across each of our segments. Gross margin percentage increased slightly, due to gross margin percentage improvement across each of our segments and favorable segment sales mix. Gross margin included a 5 percentage point improvement in commercial cloud, primarily from Azure.

Operating income increased $7.9 billion or 23%, driven by growth across each of our segments.

Key changes in expenses were:

 

Cost of revenue increased $4.6 billion or 12%, driven by growth in commercial cloud, Surface, and Gaming.

 

Research and development expenses increased $2.2 billion or 15%, driven by investments in cloud and artificial intelligence (“AI”) engineering, Gaming, LinkedIn, and GitHub.

 

Sales and marketing expenses increased $744 million or 4%, driven by investments in commercial sales capacity, LinkedIn, and GitHub, offset in part by a decrease in marketing. Sales and marketing expenses included a favorable foreign currency impact of 2%.

Current year net income included a $2.6 billion net income tax benefit related to intangible property transfers and a $157 million net charge related to the enactment of the TCJA, which together resulted in an increase to net income and diluted EPS of $2.4 billion and $0.31, respectively. Prior year net income and diluted EPS were negatively impacted by the net charge related to the enactment of the TCJA, which resulted in a decrease to net income and diluted EPS of $13.7 billion and $1.75, respectively.

Fiscal Year 2018 Compared with Fiscal Year 2017

Revenue increased $13.8 billion or 14%, driven by growth across each of our segments. Productivity and Business Processes revenue increased, driven by LinkedIn and higher revenue from Office. Intelligent Cloud revenue increased, primarily due to higher revenue from server products and cloud services. More Personal Computing revenue increased, driven by higher revenue from Gaming, Windows, Search advertising, and Surface, offset in part by lower revenue from Phone.

34


PART II

Item 7

 

Gross margin increased $9.7 billion or 16%, due to growth across each of our segments. Gross margin percentage increased slightly, driven by favorable segment sales mix and gross margin percentage improvement in More Personal Computing. Gross margin included a 7 percentage point improvement in commercial cloud, primarily from Azure.

Operating income increased $6.0 billion or 21%, driven by growth across each of our segments. LinkedIn operating loss increased $63 million to $987 million, including $1.5 billion of amortization of intangible assets. Operating income included a favorable foreign currency impact of 2%.

Key changes in expenses were:

 

Cost of revenue increased $4.1 billion or 12%, mainly due to growth in our commercial cloud, Gaming, LinkedIn, and Search advertising, offset in part by a reduction in Phone cost of revenue.

 

Sales and marketing expenses increased $2.0 billion or 13%, primarily due to LinkedIn expenses and investments in commercial sales capacity, offset in part by a decrease in Windows marketing expenses.

 

Research and development expenses increased $1.7 billion or 13%, primarily due to investments in cloud engineering and LinkedIn expenses.

 

General and administrative expenses increased $273 million or 6%, primarily due to LinkedIn expenses.

Fiscal year 2018 net income and diluted EPS were negatively impacted by the net charge related to the enactment of the TCJA, which resulted in a decrease to net income and diluted earnings per share of $13.7 billion and $1.75, respectively. Fiscal year 2017 operating income, net income, and diluted EPS were negatively impacted by restructuring expenses, which resulted in a decrease to operating income, net income, and diluted EPS of $306 million, $243 million, and $0.04, respectively.

SEGMENT RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

(In millions, except percentages)

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

Percentage
Change 2019

Versus 2018

 

 

Percentage
Change 2018

Versus 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Productivity and Business Processes

 

$

41,160

 

 

$

35,865

 

 

$

29,870

 

 

 

15%

 

 

 

20%

 

Intelligent Cloud

 

 

38,985

 

 

 

32,219

 

 

 

27,407

 

 

 

21%

 

 

 

18%

 

More Personal Computing

 

 

45,698

 

 

 

42,276

 

 

 

39,294

 

 

 

8%

 

 

 

8%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

$

125,843

 

 

$

110,360

 

 

$

96,571

 

 

 

14%

 

 

 

14%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating Income (Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Productivity and Business Processes

 

$

16,219

 

 

$

12,924

 

 

$

11,389

 

 

 

25%

 

 

 

13%

 

Intelligent Cloud

 

 

13,920

 

 

 

11,524

 

 

 

9,127

 

 

 

21%

 

 

 

26%

 

More Personal Computing

 

 

12,820

 

 

 

10,610

 

 

 

8,815

 

 

 

21%

 

 

 

20%

 

Corporate and Other

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

(306

)

 

 

*

 

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

$

42,959

 

 

$

35,058

 

 

$

29,025

 

 

 

23%

 

 

 

21%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*

Not meaningful.

Reportable Segments

Fiscal Year 2019 Compared with Fiscal Year 2018

Productivity and Business Processes

Revenue increased $5.3 billion or 15%.

 

Office Commercial revenue increased $3.2 billion or 13%, driven by Office 365 Commercial, offset in part by lower revenue from products licensed on-premises, reflecting a continued shift to cloud offerings. Office 365 Commercial grew 33%, due to growth in seats and higher average revenue per user.

35


PART II

Item 7

 

 

Office Consumer revenue increased $286 million or 7%, driven by Office 365 Consumer, due to recurring subscription revenue and transactional strength in Japan.

 

LinkedIn revenue increased $1.5 billion or 28%, driven by growth across each line of business.

 

Dynamics revenue increased 15%, driven by Dynamics 365 growth.

Operating income increased $3.3 billion or 25%, including an unfavorable foreign currency impact of 2%.

 

Gross margin increased $4.1 billion or 15%, driven by growth in Office Commercial and LinkedIn. Gross margin percentage increased slightly, due to gross margin percentage improvement in LinkedIn and Office 365 Commercial, offset in part by an increased mix of cloud offerings.

 

Operating expenses increased $806 million or 6%, driven by investments in LinkedIn and cloud engineering, offset in part by a decrease in marketing.

Intelligent Cloud

Revenue increased $6.8 billion or 21%.

 

Server products and cloud services revenue, including GitHub, increased $6.5 billion or 25%, driven by Azure. Azure revenue growth was 72%, due to higher infrastructure-as-a-service and platform-as-a-service consumption-based and per user-based services. Server products revenue increased 6%, due to continued demand for premium versions and hybrid solutions, GitHub, and demand ahead of end-of-support for SQL Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008.

 

Enterprise Services revenue increased $278 million or 5%, driven by growth in Premier Support Services and Microsoft Consulting Services.

Operating income increased $2.4 billion or 21%.

 

Gross margin increased $4.8 billion or 22%, driven by growth in server products and cloud services revenue and cloud services scale and efficiencies. Gross margin percentage increased slightly, due to gross margin percentage improvement in Azure, offset in part by an increased mix of cloud offerings.

 

Operating expenses increased $2.4 billion or 22%, driven by investments in cloud and AI engineering, GitHub, and commercial sales capacity.

More Personal Computing

Revenue increased $3.4 billion or 8%.

 

Windows revenue increased $877 million or 4%, driven by growth in Windows Commercial and Windows OEM, offset in part by a decline in patent licensing. Windows Commercial revenue increased 14%, driven by an increased mix of multi-year agreements that carry higher in-quarter revenue recognition. Windows OEM revenue increased 4%. Windows OEM Pro revenue grew 10%, ahead of the commercial PC market, driven by healthy Windows 10 demand. Windows OEM non-Pro revenue declined 7%, below the consumer PC market, driven by continued pressure in the entry level category.

 

Surface revenue increased $1.1 billion or 23%, with strong growth across commercial and consumer.

 

Gaming revenue increased $1.0 billion or 10%, driven by Xbox software and services growth of 19%, primarily due to third-party title strength and subscriptions growth, offset in part by a decline in Xbox hardware of 13% primarily due to a decrease in volume of consoles sold.

 

Search advertising revenue increased $616 million or 9%. Search advertising revenue, excluding traffic acquisition costs, increased 13%, driven by higher revenue per search.

Operating income increased $2.2 billion or 21%, including an unfavorable foreign currency impact of 2%.

 

Gross margin increased $2.0 billion or 9%, driven by growth in Windows, Gaming, and Search. Gross margin percentage increased slightly, due to a sales mix shift to higher gross margin businesses in Windows and Gaming.

 

Operating expenses decreased $172 million or 1%.

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PART II

Item 7

 

Fiscal Year 2018 Compared with Fiscal Year 2017

Productivity and Business Processes

Revenue increased $6.0 billion or 20%.

 

LinkedIn revenue increased $3.0 billion to $5.3 billion. Fiscal year 2018 included a full period of results, whereas fiscal year 2017 only included results from the date of acquisition on December 8, 2016. LinkedIn revenue primarily consisted of revenue from Talent Solutions.

 

Office Commercial revenue increased $2.4 billion or 11%, driven by Office 365 Commercial revenue growth, mainly due to growth in subscribers and average revenue per user, offset in part by lower revenue from products licensed on-premises, reflecting a continued shift to Office 365 Commercial.

 

Office Consumer revenue increased $382 million or 11%, driven by Office 365 Consumer revenue growth, mainly due to growth in subscribers.

 

Dynamics revenue increased 13%, driven by Dynamics 365 revenue growth.

Operating income increased $1.5 billion or 13%, including a favorable foreign currency impact of 2%.

 

Gross margin increased $4.4 billion or 19%, driven by LinkedIn and growth in Office Commercial. Gross margin percentage decreased slightly, due to an increased mix of cloud offerings, offset in part by gross margin percentage improvement in Office 365 Commercial and LinkedIn. LinkedIn cost of revenue increased $818 million to $1.7 billion, including $888 million of amortization for acquired intangible assets.

 

Operating expenses increased $2.9 billion or 25%, driven by LinkedIn expenses and investments in commercial sales capacity and cloud engineering. LinkedIn operating expenses increased $2.2 billion to $4.5 billion, including $617 million of amortization of acquired intangible assets.

Intelligent Cloud

Revenue increased $4.8 billion or 18%.

 

Server products and cloud services revenue increased $4.5 billion or 21%, driven by Azure and server products licensed on-premises revenue growth. Azure revenue grew 91%, due to higher infrastructure-as-a-service and platform-as-a-service consumption-based and per user-based services. Server products licensed on-premises revenue increased 5%, mainly due to a higher mix of premium licenses for Windows Server and Microsoft SQL Server.

 

Enterprise Services revenue increased $304 million or 5%, driven by higher revenue from Premier Support Services and Microsoft Consulting Services, offset in part by a decline in revenue from custom support agreements.

Operating income increased $2.4 billion or 26%.

 

Gross margin increased $3.1 billion or 16%, driven by growth in server products and cloud services revenue and cloud services scale and efficiencies. Gross margin percentage decreased, due to an increased mix of cloud offerings, offset in part by gross margin percentage improvement in Azure.

 

Operating expenses increased $683 million or 7%, driven by investments in commercial sales capacity and cloud engineering.

More Personal Computing

Revenue increased $3.0 billion or 8%.

 

Windows revenue increased $925 million or 5%, driven by growth in Windows Commercial and Windows OEM, offset by a decline in patent licensing revenue. Windows Commercial revenue increased 12%, driven by multi-year agreement revenue growth. Windows OEM revenue increased 5%. Windows OEM Pro revenue grew 11%, ahead of a strengthening commercial PC market. Windows OEM non-Pro revenue declined 4%, below the consumer PC market, driven by continued pressure in the entry-level price category.

 

Gaming revenue increased $1.3 billion or 14%, driven by Xbox software and services revenue growth of 20%, mainly from third-party title strength.

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PART II

Item 7

 

 

Search advertising revenue increased $793 million or 13%. Search advertising revenue, excluding traffic acquisition costs, increased 16%, driven by growth in Bing, due to higher revenue per search and search volume.

 

Surface revenue increased $625 million or 16%, driven by a higher mix of premium devices and an increase in volumes sold, due to the latest editions of Surface.

 

Phone revenue decreased $525 million.

Operating income increased $1.8 billion or 20%, including a favorable foreign currency impact of 2%.

 

Gross margin increased $2.2 billion or 11%, driven by growth in Windows, Surface, Search, and Gaming. Gross margin percentage increased, primarily due to gross margin percentage improvement in Surface.

 

Operating expenses increased $391 million or 3%, driven by investments in Search, AI, and Gaming engineering and commercial sales capacity, offset in part by a decrease in Windows marketing expenses.

Corporate and Other

Corporate and Other includes corporate-level activity not specifically allocated to a segment, including restructuring expenses.

Fiscal Year 2019 Compared with Fiscal Year 2018

We did not incur Corporate and Other activity in fiscal years 2019 or 2018.

Fiscal Year 2018 Compared with Fiscal Year 2017

Corporate and Other operating loss decreased $306 million, due to a reduction in restructuring expenses, driven by employee severance expenses primarily related to our sales and marketing restructuring plan in fiscal year 2017.

OPERATING EXPENSES

Research and Development

 

(In millions, except percentages)

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

Percentage

Change 2019
Versus 2018

 

 

Percentage
Change 2018
Versus 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

16,876

 

 

$

14,726

 

 

$

  13,037

 

 

 

15%

 

 

 

13%

 

As a percent of revenue

 

 

13%

 

 

 

13%

 

 

 

13%

 

 

 

0ppt

 

 

 

0ppt

 

 

 

 

Research and development expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with product development. Research and development expenses also include third-party development and programming costs, localization costs incurred to translate software for international markets, and the amortization of purchased software code and services content.

Fiscal Year 2019 Compared with Fiscal Year 2018

Research and development expenses increased $2.2 billion or 15%, driven by investments in cloud and AI engineering, Gaming, LinkedIn, and GitHub.

Fiscal Year 2018 Compared with Fiscal Year 2017

Research and development expenses increased $1.7 billion or 13%, primarily due to investments in cloud engineering and LinkedIn expenses. LinkedIn expenses increased $762 million to $1.5 billion.

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PART II

Item 7

 

Sales and Marketing

 

(In millions, except percentages)

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

Percentage

Change 2019
Versus 2018

 

 

Percentage
Change 2018
Versus 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

$

18,213

 

 

$

17,469

 

 

$

15,461

 

 

 

4%

 

 

 

13%

 

As a percent of revenue

 

 

14%

 

 

 

16%

 

 

 

16%

 

 

 

(2)ppt

 

 

 

0ppt

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with sales and marketing personnel, and the costs of advertising, promotions, trade shows, seminars, and other programs.

Fiscal Year 2019 Compared with Fiscal Year 2018

Sales and marketing expenses increased $744 million or 4%, driven by investments in commercial sales capacity, LinkedIn, and GitHub, offset in part by a decrease in marketing. Expenses included a favorable foreign currency impact of 2%.

Fiscal Year 2018 Compared with Fiscal Year 2017

Sales and marketing expenses increased $2.0 billion or 13%, primarily due to LinkedIn expenses and investments in commercial sales capacity, offset in part by a decrease in Windows marketing expenses. LinkedIn expenses increased $1.2 billion to $2.5 billion, including $617 million of amortization of acquired intangible assets.

General and Administrative

 

(In millions, except percentages)

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

Percentage

Change 2019
Versus 2018

 

 

Percentage
Change 2018
Versus 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative

 

$

4,885

 

 

$

4,754

 

 

$

4,481

 

 

 

3%

 

 

 

6%

 

As a percent of revenue

 

 

4%

 

 

 

4%

 

 

 

5%

 

 

 

0ppt

 

 

 

(1)ppt

 

 

 

 

General and administrative expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, severance expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with finance, legal, facilities, certain human resources and other administrative personnel, certain taxes, and legal and other administrative fees.

Fiscal Year 2019 Compared with Fiscal Year 2018

General and administrative expenses increased $131 million or 3%.

Fiscal Year 2018 Compared with Fiscal Year 2017

General and administrative expenses increased $273 million or 6%, primarily due to LinkedIn expenses. LinkedIn expenses increased $234 million to $528 million.

RESTRUCTURING EXPENSES

Restructuring expenses include employee severance expenses and other costs associated with the consolidation of facilities and manufacturing operations related to restructuring activities.

Fiscal Year 2019 Compared with Fiscal Year 2018

We did not incur restructuring expenses in fiscal years 2019 or 2018.

Fiscal Year 2018 Compared with Fiscal Year 2017

During fiscal year 2017, we recorded $306 million of employee severance expenses, primarily related to our sales and marketing restructuring plan.

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PART II

Item 7

 

OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE), NET

The components of other income (expense), net were as follows:

 

(In millions)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended June 30,

 

 

2019

 

 

 

2018

 

 

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 

Interest and dividends income

 

$

2,762

 

 

$

2,214

 

 

$

1,387

 

Interest expense

 

 

(2,686

)

 

 

(2,733

)

 

 

(2,222

)

Net recognized gains on investments

 

 

648

 

 

 

2,399

 

 

 

2,583

 

Net gains (losses) on derivatives

 

 

144

 

 

 

(187

)

 

 

(510

)

Net losses on foreign currency remeasurements

 

 

(82

)

 

 

(218

)

 

 

(111

)

Other, net

 

 

(57